1700 in science
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- January 26 – At approximately 9 p.m., the Cascadia earthquake occurred with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.7–9.2. This megathrust earthquake ruptured about 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and caused a tsunami that struck the coast of Japan approximately 10 hours later.
- Nicolas Andry publishes De la génération des vers dans les corps de l'homme, a pioneering text in the germ theory of disease.
- Bernardino Ramazzini publishes De Morbis Artificum Diatriba in Modena, a pioneering text in occupational medicine.
- approx. date – The clarinet might have been invented by the German flute maker Johann Christoph Denner as a modification of the chalumeau, but it will not be until the late 18th century that composers include clarinets into their orchestrations.
- The piano, newly invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori, is listed in an inventory of musical instruments owned by the Medici.
- February 8 – Daniel Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (died 1782)
- May 7 – Gerard van Swieten, Dutch-born physician (died 1772)
- November 19 – Jean-Antoine Nollet, French clergyman and physicist (died 1770)
- November 28 – Nathaniel Bliss, English astronomer (died 1764)
- May 22 – Louis Jolliet, Canadian explorer (born 1645)
- August 8 – Joseph Moxon, English mathematician (born 1627)
- Undated – Kamalakara, Indian astronomer and mathematician (born 1616)
- Gurney, Alan (1997). Below the Convergence: Voyages Toward Antarctica, 1699-1839. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-03949-8.
- Gee, Henry (2004). Jacob's Ladder: the History of the Human Genome. New York: W. W. Norton. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-393-05083-7.
- McKinney, Roger W. "A Short History". Clarinet Compendium. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F. (August 2004). "Berlin Academy of Science". MacTutor History of Mathematics. Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F. (November 1999). "William Braikenridge". MacTutor History of Mathematics. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
- McConnell, Anita (2004). "Martine, George (1700–1741)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18227. Retrieved 2014-11-02. (subscription or UK public library membership required)