1712 in science
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- John Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis is first published, against his will and without credit by Isaac Newton and Edmond Halley with the influence of John Arbuthnot. (A final version, approved by Flamsteed, is published posthumously in 1725.)
- Brook Taylor stated a version of what was later known as Taylor's theorem.
- Giacomo F. Maraldi experimentally obtains the angle in the rhombic dodecahedron shape, still called the Maraldi angle.
- The first known working Newcomen steam engine is built by Thomas Newcomen with John Calley to pump water out of mines in the Black Country of England.
- March 8 – John Fothergill, English physician (died 1780)
- March 27 – Claude Bourgelat, French veterinary surgeon (died 1779)
- February 2 – Martin Lister, English naturalist (born 1639)
- March 25 – Nehemiah Grew, English naturalist (born 1641)
- August 29 – Gregory King, English statistician (born 1648)
- September 14 – Giovanni Cassini, Italian-born astronomer (born 1625)
- approx. date – Denis Papin, French physicist, mathematician and inventor (born 1647)