1730 Valparaíso earthquake
|Local date||July 8, 1730|
|Magnitude||9.1–9.3 Mw, 8.75 Mt|
|Areas affected||Captaincy General of Chile, Spanish Empire|
The 1730 Valparaíso earthquake occurred at 04:45 local time (08:45 UTC) on July 8. It had an estimated magnitude of 9.1–9.3 and triggered a major tsunami with an estimated magnitude of Mt =8.75, that inundated the lower parts of Valparaíso. The earthquake caused severe damage from La Serena to Chillan, while the tsunami affected more than 1,000 km (620 mi) of Chile's coastline.
Chile has been at a convergent plate boundary that generates megathrust earthquakes since the Paleozoic (500 million years ago). In historical times the Chilean coast has suffered many megathrust earthquakes along this plate boundary, including the strongest earthquake ever measured. Most recently, the boundary ruptured in 2010 in central Chile.
Only a few deaths were recorded due to the earthquake, reportedly because a strong foreshock had caused people to leave their homes. The same is also true for the following tsunami with the inhabitants running to higher ground after seeing the water recede, so that only a few were killed.
A 350–550 km (220–340 mi) long rupture has been estimated for this event, from the extent of severe damage.
The tsunami occurred immediately after the mainshock, with a maximum run-up height recorded at Concepción of 16 m. It was also observed at Callao, Peru and in Honshu, Japan where fields were flooded in Rikuzen and the Oshika Peninsula.
- Carvajal, M.; Cisternas, M.; Catalán, P.A. (2017). "Source of the 1730 Chilean earthquake from historical records: Implications for the future tsunami hazard on the coast of Metropolitan Chile". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 122 (5). doi:10.1002/2017JB014063.
- Grez, P.W.; Alvarez J.V. (2008). "Evaluacion de riesgo de tsunami en Quintero, Chile (Evaluation of tsunami risk in Quintero, Chile)" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- NGDC. "NGDC page for this event". Retrieved 28 February 2010.
- "Tsunami Hazard in the city of Valparaíso" (PDF) (in Spanish). 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- USGS (6 March 2010). "Magnitude 8.8 - OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE". Archived from the original on 1 March 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
- NGDC. "Comments for the tsunami event". Retrieved 6 March 2010.
- USGS (2005). "The orphan tsunami of 1700" (PDF). pp. 50–57. Retrieved 6 March 2010.