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The year 1737 in science and technology involved some significant events.
- Elizabeth Blackwell's A Curious Herbal, with her own colour illustrations, is published in London.
- Francesco Serao is the first person to use the word lava in connection with extruded magma in a short account of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius which took place between May 14 and June 4.
- October 11 – An earthquake in Calcutta, India is said to have caused 300,000 deaths; this is now in question: it was probably a cyclone, with deaths estimated at 3,000.
- October 16 – An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 8.3 strikes offshore of the Kamchatka Peninsula.