1741 in music
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- October 2 – The Bull's Head Musical Society opens a Music Hall in Fishamble Street, Dublin, Ireland.
- August 22–September 14 – George Frideric Handel composes his oratorio Messiah in London to a libretto compiled by Charles Jennens, completing the "Hallelujah Chorus" on September 6.
- November 18 – George Frideric Handel arrives in Dublin to give a series of concerts having tried out the Messiah privately en route in Chester.
- November 25 – Marguerite-Antoinette Couperin, the first female court musician at the French court, sells her official post to Bernard de Bury.
- Johann Friedrich Agricola arrives in Berlin to study musical composition under Johann Joachim Quantz.
- Antonio Vivaldi leaves Venice for Vienna, but dies shortly after his arrival.
- 19-year-old Jiří Antonín Benda is given the post of second violinist at the Berlin court of King Frederick II of Prussia.
- William Hogarth produces an engraving entitled The Enraged Musician.
- Johann Sebastian Bach: Goldberg Variations published.
- George Frideric Handel: Messiah composed.
- Jean-Philippe Rameau: Pieces de Clavecin en Concerts published.
- Tomaso Albinoni – Artamene
- Christoph Willibald Gluck – Artaserse
- Giovanni Battista Lampugnani – Arsace
- February 8 – André Grétry, composer (died 1813)
- February 9 – Henri-Joseph Rigel, composer (died 1799)
- May 23 – Andrea Luchesi, composer (died 1801)
- July 17 – Suzette Defoye, opera singer and ballerina
- July 27 – François-Hippolyte Barthélémon, violinist and composer (died 1808)
- August 31 – Jean-Paul-Égide Martini, composer (died 1816)
- September 25 – Wenzel Pichl, singer, violinist and composer (died 1805)
- date unknown
- January 5 – Ann Turner Robinson, English soprano
- February 13 – Johann Fux, composer and theorist (born 1660)
- June 21 – Joseph-Hector Fiocco, Flemish violinist and composer (born 1703)
- July 28 – Antonio Vivaldi, composer (born 1678)
- August – David Owen, Welsh harpist (born 1712)
- August 24 – Gabriel-Vincent Thévenard, French operatic baritone (born 1669)
- September 7 – Henri Desmarets, French composer of sacred music (born 1661)
- probable – Francesco Scarlatti, composer (born 1666)
- de Courcy, J.W. (1996). The Liffey in Dublin. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. p. 468. ISBN 0-7171-2423-1.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 308–309. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- British Library (London) MS RM.20.f.2, f106.
- Burrows, Donald (2004). "Handel, George Frideric (1685–1759)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online (October 2007) ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12192. Retrieved 2013-02-26. (subscription or UK public library membership required)