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This article is about the year 1743.
|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1710s 1720s 1730s – 1740s – 1750s 1760s 1770s|
|Years:||1740 1741 1742 – 1743 – 1744 1745 1746|
|1743 by topic:|
|Arts and Sciences|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature (Poetry) – Music – Science|
|Canada –Denmark – France – Great Britain – Ireland – Norway – Sweden –|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2496|
|British Regnal year||16 Geo. 2 – 17 Geo. 2|
|Chinese calendar||壬戌年 (Water Dog)
4439 or 4379
— to —
癸亥年 (Water Pig)
4440 or 4380
|- Vikram Samvat||1799–1800|
|- Shaka Samvat||1665–1666|
|- Kali Yuga||4844–4845|
|Japanese calendar||Kanpō 3
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||169 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2285–2286|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1743.|
Year 1743 (MDCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar.
- February 14 – Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister.
- February 21 – George Frideric Handel's oratorio, Samson premieres in London .
- March 2 – Battle of La Guaira: a British expeditionary fleet under Sir Charles Knowles is defeated by the Spanish.
- May 10 – In New France, Governor Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville ends his final term (multiple times over 43 years) as Governor of colonial French Louisiana, which he helped colonize; he is succeeded by the Marquis de Vaudreuil (for the next 10 years) and returns to France.
- June 27 (June 16 O.S.) – War of the Austrian Succession: Battle of Dettingen in Bavaria – British forces, in alliance with those of Hanover and Hesse, defeat a French army under the duc de Noailles; King George II of Great Britain (and Elector of Brunswick) leads his own troops, the last British king to do so.
- August 7 – Russia and Sweden sign the Treaty of Åbo.
- September 11 – Natalia Lopukhina is flogged in front of the Twelve Collegia building in Saint Petersburg.
- September 13 – The Treaty of Worms is signed between Great Britain, Austria, and Sardinia.
- November 5 – Coordinated scientific observations of the transit of Mercury are organized by Joseph-Nicolas Delisle.
- January 18 – Louis Claude de Saint-Martin French philosopher, known as le philosophe inconnu. (d. 1803)
- January 25 – Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, German philosopher (d. 1819)
- February 13 – Sir Joseph Banks, British naturalist and botanist (d. 1820)
- February 19 – Luigi Boccherini, Italian composer (d. 1805)
- February 23 – Mayer Amschel Rothschild, German-born banker (d. 1812)
- c. March/April – Joseph Brant, Mohawk leader (d. 1807)
- March 4 – Johann David Wyss, Swiss author (d. 1818)
- March 14 – Hannah Cowley, English dramatist and poet (d. 1809)
- April 1 – Richard Butler (general) American soldier (d. 1793)
- April 13 – Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of the United States, author of the Declaration of American Independence (d. 1826)
- May 17 – Seth Warner American revolutionary hero (d. 1784)
- May 20 – Toussaint Louverture, Haitian rebel (d. 1803)
- May 24 – Jean-Paul Marat, French revolutioner, doctor, scientist (d. 1793)
- June 2 – Alessandro Cagliostro, Italian Freemason (d. 1795)
- June 3 – José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, Spanish viceroy of Peru (d. 1821)
- August 26 – Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist (d. 1794)
- September 11 – Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard, Danish painter (d. 1809)
- September 17 – Marquis de Condorcet, French mathematician, philosopher, and political scientist (d. 1794)
- December 23 – Ippolit Bogdanovich, Russian poet (d. 1803)
- date unknown – Károly Hadaly, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1834)
- January 3 – Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena, Italian architect/painter (b. 1657)
- January 29 – Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury, Bishop of Fréjus, chief minister of France under Louis XV (b. 1653)
- January 29 – Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre, French writer (b. 1658)
- February 18 – Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, last of the Medicis (b. 1667)
- April 4 – Daniel Neal, English historian (b. 1678)
- May 6 - Andrew Michael Ramsay, English Freemason (b. 1686)
- June 16 – Louise-Françoise de Bourbon, eldest daughter of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan; she built the Paris Palais Bourbon where she died (b. 1673)
- July 2 – Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, second Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
- August 5 – John Hervey, 2nd Baron Hervey, English statesman and writer (b. 1696)
- September 14 – Nicolas Lancret, French painter (b. 1690)
- September 21 – Jai Singh II, King of Amber-Juiper, India (b. 1688)
- September 23 – Erik Benzelius the younger, Swedish priest (b. 1675)
- October 4 – John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, Scottish soldier (b. 1678)
- December 27 – Hyacinthe Rigaud, French painter (b. 1659)