1743 in science
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- November 29 – Discovery of C/1743 X1, the 'Great Comet of 1744' (sic.), by Jan de Munck at Middelburg and subsequently by de Chéseaux and Klinkenberg.
- Sir Christopher Packe produces a geological map of south-east England.
- May 19 – French physicist Jean-Pierre Christin of Lyon publishes the design of a mercury thermometer with a centigrade scale running from 0 representing the freezing point of water and 100 its boiling point.
Physiology and medicine
- June 2 – British surgeon William Hunter presents his paper "Of the structure and diseases of articulating cartilages".
- February 13 – Joseph Banks, English botanist (died 1820)
- February 28 – René Just Haüy, French mineralogist (died 1822)
- April 13 (April 2 O.S.) – Thomas Jefferson, Founding Father and 3rd President of the United States and inventor (died 1826)
- June 3 – Lucia Galeazzi Galvani, Italian scientist (died 1788)
- August 17 – Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann, German geographer and zoologist (died 1815)
- August 26 – Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist (died 1794)
- September 17 – Marquis de Condorcet, French mathematician, philosopher and political scientist (died 1794)
- October 20 – François Chopart, French surgeon (died 1795)
- November 11 – Carl Peter Thunberg, Swedish botanist (died 1828)
- December 1 – Martin Heinrich Klaproth, German chemist (died 1817)
- Elisabeth Christina von Linné, Swedish botanist (died 1782)
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- De Munck, J. (1744). Sterrekundige Waarneemingen op de Comeet of Staart-Sterre: Sedert den 29 November des Jaars 1743; tot op den 1 Maart van den Jaare 1744. Amsterdam; Middelburg: Isaak Tirion; Hendrik van Hoekke.
- Hunter, William (1743). "Of the Structure and Diseases of Articulating Cartilages". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. London. 42: 514–21. doi:10.1098/rstl.1742.0079. PMID 7671493. Retrieved 2012-01-05.