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1744 was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1744th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 744th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1740s decade. As of the start of 1744, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 24 – The Dagohoy rebellion in the Philippines begins, with the killing of Father Giuseppe Lamberti.
- February – Violent storms frustrated planned French Invasion of Britain.
- February 22–23 – Battle of Toulon: The British fleet is defeated by a joint Franco-Spanish fleet.
- March 1 (approximately) – The Great Comet of 1744, one of the brightest ever seen, reaches perihelion.
- March 15 – France declares war on Great Britain.
- April – The Female Spectator (a monthly) is founded by Eliza Haywood in England, the first periodical written for women by a woman.
- April 2 – The First Rules of Golf are drawn up at Leith, for the first golf competition.
- April 20 – Battle of Villafranca (1744): A joint French and Spanish force defeats Britain and Sardinia.
- June 28 – Catherine the Great is received into the Russian Orthodox Church.
- July 19 – Battle of Casteldelfino: France defeats the Kingdom of Sardinia.
- July 29 – Nader Shah lays siege to the Ottoman citadel of Kars.
- August 12 – Battle of Velletri in the Kingdom of Naples: Spanish-Neapolitan forces defeat those of the Archduchy of Austria.
- September 16 – Prague surrenders to the Prussians, commanded by Frederick the Great.
- September 30 – Battle of Madonna dell'Olmo: France and Spain defeat the Kingdom of Sardinia.
- The third French and Indian War, known as King George's War, breaks out at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia.
- The First Saudi State is founded by Muhammad bin Saud.
- Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, sequel to Tommy Thumb's Song Book, containing the oldest version of many well-known and popular rhymes, is published in London.
- January 10 – Thomas Mifflin, first Governor of Pennsylvania (d. 1800)
- February 6 – Pierre-Joseph Desault, French anatomist and surgeon (d. 1795)
- February 23 – Mayer Amschel Rothschild, German banker, founder of the Rothschild banking dynasty (d. 1812)
- May 19 – Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, queen of George III of Great Britain (d. 1818)
- May 21 – Samuel Ireland, British author and engraver (d. 1800)
- May 31 – Richard Lovell Edgeworth, Anglo-Irish, politician writer and inventor (d. 1817)
- July 17 – Elbridge Gerry, 5th Vice President of the United States, American politician (d. 1814)
- July 20 – Joshua Clayton, American politician (d. 1798)
- August 1 – Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, French naturalist (d. 1829)
- August 16 – Pierre Méchain, French astronomer (d. 1804)
- August 25 – Johann Gottfried Herder, German writer (d. 1803)
- September 25 – King Frederick William II of Prussia (d. 1797)
- November 11 – Abigail Adams, First Lady of the United States (d. 1818)
- date unknown – Marie Barch, Danish ballerina (d. 1827)
- January 11 – James Hamilton, 7th Earl of Abercorn (b. 1686)
- January 22 – Pierre Lepautre (1659–1744), French artist (b. 1659)
- January 23 – Giambattista Vico, Italian philosopher, historian (b. 1668)
- January 26 – Ludwig Andreas von Khevenhüller, Austrian field marshal (b. 1683)
- February 11 – Hedvig Taube, mistress to King Frederick I of Sweden (b. 1714)
- February 14 – John Hadley, English mathematician (b. 1682)
- March 3 – Jean Barbeyrac, French jurist (b. 1674)
- March 4 – John Anstis, English herald (b. 1669)
- April 25 – Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer (b. 1701)
- May 30 – Alexander Pope, English writer (b. 1688)
- June 29
- July – Mihai Racoviță, Prince of Moldavia and Prince of Wallachia
- August 9 – James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos, English patron of the arts (b. 1673)
- August 13 – John Cruger, Dutch-born Mayor of New York (b. 1678)
- August 26 – William Byrd II, prominent planter from Virginia (b. 1674)
- September 28 – Princess Thérèse of France, daughter of Louis XV of France (b. 1736)
- October 10 – Johann Heinrich Schulze, German professor and polymath (b. 1687)
- October 18 – Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, English friend of Anne, Queen of Great Britain (b. 1660)
- October 31 – Leonardo Leo, Italian composer (b. 1694)
- December 8 – Marie Anne de Mailly-Nesle, French mistress of King Louis XV (b. 1717)
- December 23 – Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, duchess and regent of Lorraine (b. 1676)
- date unknown – Catherine Jérémie, French-Canadian botanist (b. 1644)
- Rules of Golf 1744 Scottish Golf History accessed 10 Feb 2017 http://www.scottishgolfhistory.org/origin-of-golf-terms/rules-of-golf/
- Instructions, golf club rules and competitions History of Golf accessed 10 Feb 2017 History of golf