1749 in music
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- March 4 – Johann Sebastian Bach revives (for the last time under his leadership) his St John Passion BWV 245 (BC D 2d) with some textual and instrumentational changes at St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig. In it, he uses the contrabassoon for the first time (as a continuo instrument).
- March 17 – George Frideric Handel's oratorio Solomon first performed, at the Theatre Royal in London.
- April 27 – The first official performance of Handel's Music for the Royal Fireworks, in London, finishes early due to the outbreak of fire.
- 1749–1750 – Bach revises his The Art of Fugue BWV 1080, but the project will be left incomplete by his death and published in 1751 by his son Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in Berlin).
- Charles Wesley – "Soldiers of Christ, Arise" (hymn)
- Baldassare Galuppi – L'Arcadia in Brenta, first opera buffa
- Jean-Joseph de Mondonville – Le carnaval du Parnasse
- José Nebra – El mágico Apolonio
- May – Elisabeth Soligny, French ballerina and ballet mistress
- May 5 – Jean-Frédéric Edelmann, composer (died 1794)
- June 15 – Georg Joseph Vogler, (known as Abbé Vogler) German composer, teacher and theorist (died 1814)
- December 17 – Domenico Cimarosa, composer (died 1801)
- date unknown – Marija Zubova, composer (d. 1799)
- February 7 – André Cardinal Destouches, French composer of opera (born 1672)
- June 11 – Johann Bernhard Bach, organist and composer, second cousin of Johann Sebastian Bach (born 1676)
- October 26 – Louis-Nicolas Clérambault, composer (born 1676)
- November 19 – Carl Heinrich Biber, composer (born 1681)
- November 27 – Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel, composer (born 1690)
- December 19 – Francesco Antonio Bonporti, priest and composer (born 1672)
- date unknown – Johann Ernst Galliard, composer (born 1687)