1753 in science
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- May 1 – Publication of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum, the start of formal scientific classification of plants.
- June – Establishment in Florence of the Accademia dei Georgofili, the world's oldest society devoted to agronomy and scientific agriculture.
- January 1 – Retrospectively, the minimum date value for a datetime field in an SQL Server (up to version 2005) due to this being the first full year since Britain's adoption of the Gregorian calendar.
- James Lind publishes the first edition of A Treatise on the Scurvy (although it is little noticed at this time).
- Benjamin Franklin invents the lightning rod, to ring a bell when struck by lightning, following his 1752 kite and key tests.
- George Semple uses hydraulic lime cement in rebuilding Essex Bridge in Dublin.
- March 26 – Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, Anglo-American physicist (died 1814)
- April 28 – Franz Karl Achard, chemist (died 1821)
- August 3 – Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope, British statesman and scientist (died 1816)
- August 6 – Georg Wilhelm Richmann, Russian physicist (born 1711)
- December – Thomas Melvill, Scottish natural philosopher (born 1726)
- Энциклопедия для детей (астрономия). Москва: Аванта+. 1998. ISBN 978-5-89501-016-7.
- Date adopted by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
- Geoffroy, C. F. (1753). "Sur Bismuth". Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences: 190. Retrieved 2013-11-26.
- Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements. II. Elements known to the alchemists". Journal of Chemical Education. 9: 11. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9...11W. doi:10.1021/ed009p11.
- Hammond, C. R. (2004). "The Elements". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (81st ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4-1. ISBN 0-8493-0485-7.
- Bartholemew, M. (January 2002). "James Lind and Scurvy: a revaluation". Journal for Maritime Research. National Maritime Museum.
- Semple, George (1776). A Treatise on Building in Water. Dublin: Husband.