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|State leaders – Colonial governors – Religious leaders|
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|Births – Deaths|
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1754 (MDCCLIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday (dominical letter B) of the Julian calendar, the 1754th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 754th year of the 2nd millennium, the 54th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1754, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 28 – Horace Walpole, in a letter to Horace Mann, coins the word serendipity.
- February 25 – Guatemalan Sergeant Major Melchor de Mencos y Varón departs the city of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala with an infantry battalion to fight British pirates that are reportedly disembarking on the coasts of Petén (modern-day Belize) and sacking the nearby towns.
- March 25 – The Clandestine Marriages Act of 1753 comes into force in England and Wales, placing marriage in that jurisdiction on a statutory basis for the first time.
- April 30 – Guatemalan Sergeant Mayor Melchor de Mencos y Varón and his troops defeat the British pirates in the battle of San Felipe and the Cobá Lagoon.
- May 14 – The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews is founded in Scotland.
- May 28 – The Battle of Jumonville Glen begins the French and Indian War in North America: 22-year-old George Washington leads a company of militia from the Colony of Virginia in an ambush on a force of 35 French Canadians.
- June 19 – The Albany Congress of seven northern colonies proposes an American Union.
- July – Columbia University is founded as King's College by royal charter of King George II of England. The college is originally located in Lower Manhattan. Instruction is suspended in 1776 and the school reopens in 1784 as Columbia College. With the college's growth in the 19th Century, it is renamed Columbia University in 1896.
- July 3 – French and Indian War: Battle of Fort Necessity – George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to French Capt. Louis Coulon de Villiers.
- December 13 – Osman III (1754–1757) succeeds Mahmud I as Ottoman Emperor.
- Surveyor William Churton lays out what will become the county seat of Orange County, North Carolina. The town is named Corbin Town for Francis Corbin, a member of the North Carolina governor's council. Corbin Town is renamed Childsburgh in 1759 and finally Hillsborough in 1766.
- January 15
- January 30 – John Lansing, Jr., American statesman (disappeared 1829)
- February 13 – Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, French politician (d. 1838)
- February 17 – Nicolas Baudin, French explorer (d. 1803)
- March 4 – Benjamin Waterhouse, American physician and medical professor (smallpox vaccine pioneer) (d. 1846)
- March 17 – Madame Roland (Jeanne Marie Manon Philipon), French politician (d. 1793)
- March 23 – Baron Jurij Vega, Slovenian mathematician, physicist and artillery officer (d. 1802)
- May 23 – William Drennan, Irish physician, poet and radical politician (d. 1820)
- May 31 – Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon, Marshal of France (d. 1818)
- June 4 – Franz Xaver von Zach, German scientific editor and astronomer (d. 1832)
- June 8 – Anna Maria Lenngren, Swedish poet, feminist and cultural figure (d. 1817)
- July 11 – Thomas Bowdler, English physician (d. 1825)
- August 9 – Pierre Charles L'Enfant, French architect (d. 1825)
- August 18 – François, marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat, French general (d. 1833)
- August 21 – William Murdoch, Scottish inventor (d. 1839)
- August 23 – King Louis XVI of France (d. 1793)
- September 9 – William Bligh, English sailor (d. 1817)
- September 20 – Emperor Paul I of Russia (d. 1801)
- September 26 – Joseph Proust, French chemist (d. 1826)
- October 9 – Jean-Baptiste Regnault, French painter (d. 1829)
- October 28 – John Laurens, American soldier (d. 1782)
- November 19 – Pedro Romero, Spanish torero (d. 1839)
- December 7 – Jack Jouett, American politician (d. 1822)
- December 9 – Étienne Ozi, French composer (d. 1813)
- December 24 – George Crabbe, English poet (d. 1832)
- Date unknown
- Usman dan Fodio, Nigerian Islamic theologian (d. 1817)
- January 10 – Edward Cave, English editor and publisher (b. 1691)
- January 28 – Ludvig Holberg, Norwegian dramatist and writer (b. 1684)
- February 2 – William Benson, English architect and self-serving Whig place-holder (b. 1682)
- February 5 – Caroline Thielo, Danish actress (b. 1735)
- February 16 – Richard Mead, English physician (b. 1673)
- March 6 – Henry Pelham, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1696)
- March 23 – Johann Jakob Wettstein, Swiss theologian (b. 1693)
- April 2 – Thomas Carte, English historian (b. 1686)
- April 9 – Christian Wolff, German philosopher, mathematician, and scientist (b. 1679)
- April 15 – Jacopo Riccati, Italian mathematician (b. 1676)
- May 14 – Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée, French writer (b. 1692)
- May 23 – John Wood, the Elder, English architect (b. 1704)
- June 2 – Ebenezer Erskine, Scottish religious dissenter (b. 1680)
- July 4 – Philippe Néricault Destouches, French dramatist (b. 1680)
- October 4 – Tanacharison, Catawba Indian chief (b. c. 1700)
- October 8 – Henry Fielding, English novelist (b. 1707)
- October 10 – Dorothea Krag, Danish General Postmaster and noble (b. 1675)
- November 27 – Abraham de Moivre, French mathematician (b. 1667)
- December 12 – Wu Jingzi, Chinese writer (b. 1701)
- December 13 – Mahmud I, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1696)