1754 in science
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- Albert Brahms, Frisian Dijkgraaf, begins publication of Anfangsgründe der Deich und Wasser-Baukunst ("Principles of Dike and Aquatic Engineering") advocating scientific recording of tides.
- Joshua Kirby publishes the pamphlet Dr. Brook Taylor's Method of Perspective made Easy both in Theory and Practice containing William Hogarth's Satire on False Perspective.
- Lagrange begins to work on the problem of tautochrone.
- Václav Prokop Diviš, Czech theologian and natural scientist in the fields of applied electricity, develops a weather-machine. The same year, an electrical conductor devised by him is installed at the Vienna General Hospital.
- March 4 – Benjamin Waterhouse, American physician (died 1846)
- March 15 – Archibald Menzies, Scottish surgeon and botanist (died 1842)
- May 6 – Thomas Coke, English agriculturalist and geneticist (died 1842)
- June 4 – Franz Xaver, Baron Von Zach, German astronomer (died 1832)
- August 21 – William Murdoch, Scottish engineer and inventor (died 1839)
- September 26 – Joseph Proust, French chemist (died 1826)
- February 5 – Nicolaas Kruik (Cruquius), Dutch cartographer and meteorologist (born 1678)
- April 9 – Christan Wolff, German philosopher, mathematician and scientist (born 1679)
- April 15 – Jacopo Riccati, Italian mathematician (born 1676)
- November 27 – Abraham de Moivre, French mathematician (born 1667)
- *Niemeyer, Hanz D.; Eiben, Hartmut; Rohde, Hans (1996), "History and heritage of German coastal entineering", in Kraus, Nicholas C., A Collection of Papers on the History of Coastal Engineering in Countries Hosting the International Coastal Engineering Conference 1950-1996 (PDF), American Society of Civil Engineers,
far ahead of his contemporaries.