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1763 (MDCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (dominical letter B) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Julian calendar, the 1763rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 763rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 63rd year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1763, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- July 7 – The British East India Company declare Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal, to be deposed.
- August 2 – Mir Qasim routed at Odwa Nala. He flees to Patna, where he massacres the English garrison, but is subsequently defeated at Katwa, Murshidabad, Giria, Sooty, Udayanala and Munger.
- August 5 – Pontiac's War – Battle of Bushy Run: British forces led by Henry Bouquet defeat Chief Pontiac's Indians at Bushy Run in the Pennsylvania backcountry.
- August – Fire in Smyrna, Ottoman Empire, destroys 2,600 houses.
- September 1 – Catherine II of Russia endorses Ivan Betskoy's plans for a Foundling Home in Moscow.
- October 7 – The Royal Proclamation of 1763 is issued by George III of the United Kingdom, restricting westward expansion of British North America and stabilizing relations with indigenous peoples of the Americas.
- November 24 – Bayes' theorem is first announced.
- December 2 – Touro Synagogue, Newport, Rhode Island, dedicated; by the end of the 20th century this will be the oldest surviving synagogue in North America.
- December 14 – The Paxton Boys massacre six Conestoga Indians in their homes in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania When the 16 survivors are sheltered in the Lancaster workhouse (jail), the Paxton Boys ride into town and kill them as well, on December 27.
- January 8 – Edmond-Charles Genêt, French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution (d. 1834)
- January 24 – Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron, Russian general (d. 1831)
- January 26 – Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, King Charles XIV John of Sweden, and Charles III John of Norway (d. 1844)
- February 14 – Jean Victor Marie Moreau, French general (d. 1813)
- February 20 – Adalbert Gyrowetz, Bohemian composer (d. 1850)
- March 9 – William Cobbett, English journalist and author (d. 1835)
- March 13 – Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune, Marshal of France (d. 1815)
- March 21 – Jean Paul, German writer (d. 1825)
- May 7 – Józef Antoni Poniatowski, Polish prince and Marshal of France (d. 1813)
- May 21 – Joseph Fouché, French statesman (d. 1820)
- June 20 – Theobald Wolfe Tone, Irish patriot (d. 1798)
- June 23 – Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress of France (d. 1814)
- July 17 – John Jacob Astor, German-born entrepreneur (d. 1848)
- August 13 – Christoph Johann von Medem, German courtier (d. 1838)
- August 17 – Dmitry Senyavin, Russian admiral (d. 1831)
- September 2 – Caroline Schelling, German scholar and intellectual (d. 1809)
- December 25 – Claude Chappe, French telecommunication pioneer (d. 1805)
- December 28 – John Molson, Canadian entrepreneur (d. 1836)
- December 31 – Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, French admiral (d. 1806)
- Date unknown
- January 11 – Caspar Abel, German theologian, historian, and poet (b. 1676)
- January 22 – John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, English statesman (b. 1690)
- January 29 – Louis Racine, French poet (b. 1692)
- February 11 – William Shenstone, English poet (b. 1714)
- February 12 – Pierre de Marivaux, French writer (b. 1688)
- March 24 – Catherine Charlotte De la Gardie, Swedish countess (b. 1723)
- April 8 – Koca Ragıp Pasha, Ottoman (Turkish) Grand Vizier (b. 1698)
- May 3 – George Psalmanazar, British impostor (b. c. 1679)
- June 29 – Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Swedish writer (b. 1718)
- August 21 – Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont, British statesman (b. 1710)
- September 20 – Gabriela Silang, Filipino rebel leader and heroine (b. 1731)
- September 26 – John Byrom, English poet (b. 1692)
- October 5 – Augustus, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (b. 1696)
- October 28 – Heinrich von Brühl, German statesman (b. 1700)
- November 10 – Joseph Dupleix – French governor general at Pondichéry
- November 23 – Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff, German soldier (b. 1673)
- December 17 – Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony (b. 1722)
- December 23 – Antoine François Prévost, writer (b. 1697)