1792 and 1793 United States Senate elections

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1792 and 1793 United States Senate elections

← 1790/91 Dates vary by state 1794/95 →

10 of the 30 seats in the United States Senate
(as well as special elections)
16 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Pro-Administration Anti-Administration
Last election 16 seats 9
Seats before 17 10
Seats after 18 11
Seat change Increase 1 Increase 1
Seats up 4 6
Races won 5 5

Majority faction before election

Pro-Administration

Elected Majority faction

Pro-Administration

The United States Senate elections of 1792 and 1793 were elections of United States Senators that coincided with President George Washington's unanimous re-election. In these elections, terms were up for the ten senators in class 2.

Formal organized political parties had yet to form in the United States, but two political factions were present: The coalition of Senators who supported George Washington's administration were known as the Pro-Administration Party, and the Senators against him as the Anti-Administration Party. As these elections were prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 3rd Congress (1793–1795)

  • Majority Party: Pro-Administration Party (16)
  • Minority Party: Anti-Administration Party (13)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 30
  • Vacant: 1 (later filled by Pro-Administration)

Change in composition[edit]

Note: There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

Before the elections[edit]

After the June 1792 admission of Kentucky.

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7
Ga.
Ran
A8
Ky.
Ran
A9
N.H.
Ran
A10
S.C.
Ran
A11
Va.
Ran
A12
R.I.
Unknown
V1 P17
N.J.
Retired
P16
Del.
Unknown
Majority →
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14
Mass.
Ran
P15
N.C.
Ran
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

Results of the election[edit]

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7
Ky.
Re-elected
A8
S.C.
Re-elected
A9
Va.
Re-elected
A10
Ga.
Hold
A11
N.C.
Gain
V1 P18
R.I.
Gain
P17
N.H.
Gain
P16
N.J.
Hold
Majority →
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14
Mass.
Re-elected
P15
Del.
Hold
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

Two Pro-Administration senators (Benjamin Hawkins of North Carolina and John Langdon of New Hampshire) changed to Anti-Administration.

The vacant seat was filled February 28, 1793 by an Anti-Administration senator; he was sworn in December 1793, but his service began upon election.

A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12
Pa.
Gain
A13
N.C.
Changed
A14
N.H.
Changed
P16
Majority →
P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15
P5 P4 P3 P2 P1
Key:
A# Anti-Administration
P# Pro-Administration
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Elections during the 2nd Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1793; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kentucky
(Class 2)
New seat Kentucky was admitted to the Union June 1, 1792.
Winner elected June 18, 1792.
Anti-Administration gain.
  • Green tickY John Brown (Anti-Administration)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
New seat Kentucky was admitted to the Union June 1, 1792.
Winner elected June 18, 1792.
Anti-Administration gain.
  • Green tickY John Edwards (Anti-Administration)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Virginia
(Class 2)
Richard Henry Lee Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned October 8, 1792.
Winner elected October 18, 1792.
Anti-Administration hold.
Maryland
(Class 1)
Charles Carroll Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned November 30, 1792.
Winner elected January 10, 1793.
Pro-Administration hold.
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in 1791-1792, leaving the seat vacant.
Winner elected February 28, 1793.
Anti-Administration gain.

Races leading to the 3rd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1793; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Delaware Richard Bassett Pro-Administration 1788 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1793.
Pro-Administration hold.
  • Green tickY John Vining (Pro-Administration)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia William Few Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1793.
Anti-Administration hold.


Kentucky John Brown Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) Incumbent re-elected December 11, 1792.
Massachusetts Caleb Strong Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected in 1793.
New Hampshire Paine Wingate Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1792.
Pro-Administration gain.
New Jersey Philemon Dickinson Pro-Administration 1790 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner's election date unknown.
Pro-Administration hold.
North Carolina Samuel Johnston Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1792.[7]
Anti-Administration gain.
Rhode Island Joseph Stanton, Jr. Anti-Administration 1790 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1793.
Pro-Administration gain.
South Carolina Pierce Butler Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected December 5, 1792.
Virginia John Taylor Anti-Administration 1792 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1793.
  • Green tickY John Taylor (Anti-Administration)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]

Election in 1793 during the 3rd Congress[edit]

In this special election, the winner was seated after March 4, 1793, the beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Roger Sherman Pro-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent died July 23, 1793.
Winner elected December 2, 1793.
Pro-Administration hold.

Connecticut (Special)[edit]

Delaware[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

Maryland (Special)[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

There was a late election on February 28, 1793 for the Class 1 seat from Pennsylvania. Incumbent William Maclay's term had ended on March 3, 1791, but the legislature failed to elect a successor due to a disagreement on the procedure to be followed in the election.

The seat remained vacant until Albert Gallatin was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the seat during this election.[9]

Upon agreement between the two houses of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the House of Representatives and the Senate, regarding the procedure to elect a new Senator, an election was finally held on February 28, 1793. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Anti-Administration Albert Gallatin 45 51.72%
Pro-Administration Henry Miller 35 40.23%
Pro-Administration Arthur St. Clair 1 1.15%
Pro-Administration William Irvine 1 1.15%
N/A Not voting 5 5.75%
Total votes 87 100%

On February 28, 1794, the Senate determined that Gallatin did not satisfy the citizenship requirement for service and he was removed from office. He later went on to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives. Gallatin was replaced in the Senate by a special election in 1794.[10]

Rhode Island[edit]

South Carolina[edit]

Virginia[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
  2. ^ "Virginia 1792 U.S. Senate, Special". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing Mattern, David B., J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross and Susan Holbrook Perdue, ed. The Papers of James Madison, Congressional Series. Vol. 14. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1983. 392.)
  3. ^ "Pennsylvania 1793 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing The Pennsylvania Journal and the Weekly Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). March 6, 1793)
  4. ^ "Georgia 1792 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing The Augusta Chronicle and Gazette of the State (Augusta, GA). December 1, 1792.)
  5. ^ "Kentucky 1792 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing The Mirrour (Concord, NH). January 28, 1793.; Election of United States Senators by the General Assembly (typed manuscript). Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort.)
  6. ^ "New Hampshire 1792 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing Osborne's Newhampshire Spy (Portsmouth, NH). June 23, 1792.)
  7. ^ "North Carolina 1792 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing Legislative Papers. State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh.; Legislative Papers 1792 Box 119. State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh.)
  8. ^ "South Carolina 1792 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2018. (referencing "Rough House Journals.")
  9. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 28 February 1793" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  10. ^ "GALLATIN, Albert, (1761 - 1849)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 21, 2012.

External links[edit]