17th Infantry Division (India)
|17th Indian Infantry Division|
Shoulder patch of the 17th Indian Infantry Division.
|Country|| British India
|Allegiance|| British Empire
|Branch|| British Indian Army
|Nickname(s)||The Black Cat Division|
|Engagements||Battle of Imphal
Battle of Meiktila
|Major General Jackie Smyth VC
Major General "Punch" Cowan DSO
Major General W A Crowther DSO
The 17th Infantry Division is a formation of the Indian Army. During World War II, it had the distinction of being continually in combat during the three-year-long Burma Campaign (except for brief periods of refit).
Second World War
It was first formed in 1941, in Ahmednagar in India. It consisted then of the 44th, 45th and 46th Indian Infantry Brigades, and was intended to garrison Iraq. At the end of the year, war with Imperial Japan broke out and the division was split; 44th and 45th Brigades were despatched to Malaya where 45th Brigade fought in the Battle of Muar before both brigades were lost in the Battle of Singapore; 46th Brigade and the division HQ went to Burma, where the Division was reinforced by 16th Indian Infantry Brigade and took 2nd Burma Infantry Brigade under command.
The Japanese attacked Burma on January 22, 1942. It was soon apparent that the British and Indian troops in Burma were too few in number, wrongly equipped and inadequately trained for the terrain and conditions. After failing to hold the Kawkareik Pass and Moulmein, the division fell back to the Bilin River, where it was joined by 48th Indian Infantry Brigade.
The Bilin was not a proper defensive position, and the division tried to retreat over the Sittang River. Air attacks, poor organization and vehicle breakdowns delayed the division, and Japanese parties infiltrated around them to threaten the vital bridge over the Sittang. The division's commander, Major General "Jackie" Smyth VC, was forced to order the bridge to be destroyed, with most of the division cut off on the far side of the river. Only a few thousand men without equipment succeeded in crossing the river. Smyth was dismissed and replaced by Major General Cowan.
The division was reinforced with 63rd Indian Infantry Brigade, and narrowly escaped being trapped in Rangoon. After trying to hold a front in the Irrawaddy River valley, it subsequently retreated north into Assam just before the monsoon broke, fighting off a Japanese attempt to trap it at Kalewa.
For the campaigning season of 1943, the division was reorganised as a "Light" formation, with two brigades only (48th and 63rd), supported by mountain artillery, and with mules and jeeps only for transport. It disputed the mountainous and jungle-covered region around Tiddim, with mixed success. The division was at the end of a long and precarious supply line, and the "light" establishment was found to be inadequate in some respects. Some heavier equipment and transport was restored.
In 1944, the Japanese launched a major invasion of India. During the long Battle of Imphal, 17th Division first successfully fought its way out of encirclement at Tiddim, and then disputed the vital Bishenpur sector south of Imphal (with 32nd Indian Infantry Brigade temporarily under command). In July, the Japanese were broken by heavy casualties and starvation, and retreated. Some units of 17th Division had suffered nearly 100% casualties.
During the late monsoon season, the division was temporarily withdrawn to India and reorganised once again. 48th and 63rd Brigades were fully equipped with vehicles to become Motorized infantry. 99th Indian Infantry Brigade was added to the division, equipped to be transported by Douglas DC-3 aircraft.
In late February. 1945, the motor elements of the division, with the bulk of 255th Indian Tank Brigade under command, crossed the Irrawaddy River and advanced on the vital Japanese communications centre of Meiktila. Joined by 99th Indian Infantry Brigade which was flown into the captured airfield at Thabutkon, they captured Meiktila in only four days. Reinforced by 9th Indian Infantry Brigade which was flown into the airfields around Meiktila, they subsequently withstood a Japanese siege. This Battle of Meiktila largely destroyed the Japanese armies in Central Burma.
The division now broke the last Japanese defensive position at Pyawbwe, and advanced south on Rangoon. At Pegu, it pushed Japanese rearguards aside, but was still short of its objective when the monsoon broke. Rangoon fell to an assault from the sea, Operation Dracula.
In the last months of the campaign, the division participated in the mopping up of Japanese stragglers in Burma. After the war ended, elements of it formed part of the Commonwealth Occupation force in Japan (under Cowan). The division was disbanded in India in 1946.
The division was re-raised at Ambala (India) on November 15, 1960. It was under the command of Major General K.S. Katoch, MC. Among its new formations was 99th Indian Infantry Brigade, which was soon detached for service with ONUC in the Congo.
On November 15, 1963, the division relocated to Sikkim and took on the role of guarding a portion of the Tibet-India border.
The division had two different formation signs. The first was a lightning bolt (white) on a blue background. This was used until the middle of 1942. Afterward, the formation sign was changed to a black cat on a yellow/orange background.
The division was sometimes called, "The Black Cat Division" based on its second formation sign.
Order of Battle, as of May 1, 1944
- General Officer Commanding – Major General David Tennent Cowan
- Commander, Royal Artillery – Brigadier the Baron de Robeck
- 17 Division HQ and Signals
- 48th Indian Infantry Brigade – (Brigadier Ronald Thomas Cameron)
- 63rd Indian Infantry Brigade – (Brigadier Arthur Edward Cumming )
- Divisional Units
- 60th Field Company IE
- 70th Field Company IE
- Tehri Garhwal Field Company
- 414th Field Park Company IE
All theses brigades were assigned or attached to the division at some time during World War II
- 44th Indian Infantry Brigade
- 45th Indian Infantry Brigade
- 46th Indian Infantry Brigade
- 2nd Burma Infantry Brigade
- 16th Indian Infantry Brigade
- 48th Indian Infantry Brigade
- 7th Armoured Brigade
- 63rd Indian Infantry Brigade
- 37th Indian Infantry Brigade
- 49th Indian Infantry Brigade
- 32nd Indian Infantry Brigade
- 50th Indian Parachute Brigade
- 99th Indian Infantry Brigade
- 255th Indian Tank Brigade
- 9th Indian Infantry Brigade
- 17 Infantry Division at Orders of Battle.com
- Jon Latimer, "Burma: The Forgotten War", London: John Murray, 2004 ISBN 0-7195-6576-6
- George Macdonald Fraser, Quartered Safe Out Here (1992), a memoir of his experiences as an infantryman in the Border Regiment, part of 17th Infantry Division, during the Burma Campaign of World War II
- "17 Division units". Order of Battle. Retrieved 2009-10-22.