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|180 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||933|
|Balinese saka calendar||101–102|
|Chinese calendar||己未年 (Earth Goat)|
2876 or 2816
— to —
庚申年 (Metal Monkey)
2877 or 2817
|Coptic calendar||−104 – −103|
|- Vikram Samvat||236–237|
|- Shaka Samvat||101–102|
|- Kali Yuga||3280–3281|
|Iranian calendar||442 BP – 441 BP|
|Islamic calendar||456 BH – 455 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1732 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||491/492 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||722–723|
306 or −75 or −847
— to —
307 or −74 or −846
Year 180 (CLXXX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rusticus and Condianus (or, less frequently, year 933 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 180 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The Quadi are chased westwards, deeper into Germania. The Praetorian prefect, Tarutenius Paternus, achieves a decisive victory against the Germanic tribes.
- March 17 – Emperor Marcus Aurelius dies after a week's illness at his camp in Vindobona (modern Vienna). He is succeeded by his son Commodus (age 18).
- The Era of the Five Good Emperors ends.
- Rome creates a 4-mile wide buffer zone by the Danube.
- Work begins in Rome on the building of the Column of Marcus Aurelius.
- 180–395 – Late Empire in Rome.
- Northern Brits from beyond Hadrian's Wall invade the North of modern-day England causing Emperor Commodus to allow swathes of Northern cities to establish city walls.
Arts and sciences
- In his Methodus Medendo, Greek physician Galen describes the connection between paralysis and the severing of the spinal cord.
- Galen's popular work on hygiene is published.
- July 17 – Twelve Christian inhabitants of Scillium in Numidia are executed in Carthage (also in North Africa) (known as the Scillitan Martyrs) – they had refused to swear an oath to the Emperor.
- Commodus creates an official cult of the Zoroastrian god Mithra.
- Ardashir I, founder of the Sasanian Empire (d. 242)
- Sima Fu, official of the Cao Wei state in the Three Kingdoms period (d. 272)
- Julia Soaemias, mother of emperor Elagabalus (d. 222)
- March 17 – Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor (b. 121)
- Aulus Gellius, Latin author and grammarian (approximate date) (b. c. 125 AD)
- Gaius, Roman jurist (approximate date)
- Lucian (approximate date) (b. c. 125 AD)
- Maximilla, early Montanist
- Melito of Sardis, bishop of Sardis
- St. Miggin (martyred in Numidia)
- St. Namphamo and consorts (martyred)
- St. Symphorian (martyred)