1816 in science
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- Botanic Gardens, Sydney, established in Australia.
- René Laennec invents the stethoscope.
- Caleb Parry publishes An Experimental Inquiry into the Nature, Cause and Varieties of the Arterial Pulse, describing the mechanisms for the pulse.
- Johann Fischer von Waldheim publishes Essai sur la Turquoise et sur la Calaite in Moscow, the first scientific treatise on the mineral turquoise.
- January 9 – Sir Humphry Davy's Davy lamp is first tested underground as a coal mining safety lamp at Hebburn Colliery in north east England.
- The Spider Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill, a temporary iron-wire footbridge erected across the Schuylkill River, north of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is the first wire-cable suspension bridge in history.
- Johann Nepomuk Maelzel begins production of the metronome with a scale.
- Rev. Robert Stirling obtains a patent in the United Kingdom for the Stirling hot air engine.
- approx. date – Simeon North in New England produces a practicable milling machine for working metal.
- Copley Medal: Not awarded
- January 2 – Anastasie Fătu, Moldavian and Romanian physician and naturalist (died 1886)
- July 7 – Rudolf Wolf, Swiss astronomer (died 1893)
- July 20 – Sir William Bowman, 1st Baronet, English ophthalmologist, histologist and anatomist (died 1892)
- December 13 – Werner Siemens, German electrical engineer (died 1892)
- January 2 – Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau, French chemist (born 1737)
- April 7 – Christian Konrad Sprengel, German botanist (born 1750)
- September 28 – Edward Howard, English chemist (born 1774)
- December 15 – Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope, English engineer (born 1753)
- Philosophical Magazine 47: 385–86. 1816.
- Laennec, R. T. H. (1819). "preface". De l’Auscultation Médiate ou Traité du Diagnostic des Maladies des Poumons et du Coeur. Paris: Brosson & Chaudé.
- "Parry, Caleb Hillier". Whonamedit?. Retrieved 2011-02-27.
- Thompson, Roy (2004). Thunder underground: Northumberland mining disasters, 1815-1865. Ashbourne: Landmark. p. 121. ISBN 9781843061694. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- Peterson, Charles E. (22 March 1986). "The Spider Bridge: a curious work at the Falls of Schuylkill, 1816". Canal History and Technology Proceedings. 5: 243–59.
- Willems, J. de Vos (1830). "The Metronome". The Harmonicon. 8. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- Muir, Diana. Reflections in Bullough's Pond: Economy and Ecosystem in New England. Lebanon, New Hampshire: University Press of New England. ISBN 978-0-87451-909-9.