1823 in the United Kingdom
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Events from the year 1823 in the United Kingdom.
- January – the King's Library, George III's personal library of 65,000 volumes, 19,000 pamphlets, maps, charts and topographical drawings, is offered to the British Museum.
- 23 January – in Paviland Cave on the Gower Peninsula, William Buckland inspects the "Red Lady of Paviland", the first identification of a prehistoric (male) human burial.
- 20 February – explorer James Weddell's expedition to Antarctica reaches latitude 74°15' S and longitude 34°16'45" W: the southernmost position any ship had reached before, a record that will hold for more than 80 years.
- March – Royal Academy of Music opens.
- 17 June – Charles Macintosh patents the waterproof material later used to make Mackintosh coats.
- July – Robert Peel ensures the passage of five Acts of Parliament, effectively abolishing the death penalty for over one hundred offences; in particular, the Judgement of Death Act allows judges to commute sentences for capital offences other than murder or treason to imprisonment or transportation.
- 4 July – Transportation Act allows convicts transported to the colonies to be employed on public works.
- 10 July – Gaols Act passed by Parliament, based on the prison reform campaign of Elizabeth Fry.
- 23 September – First Burmese War: Burmese attack the British on Shapura, an island close to Chittagong.
- 25 November – opening of The Royal Suspension Chain Pier at Brighton, designed by Captain Samuel Brown, RN, the first pleasure pier on the mainland of England.
- November – according to tradition, William Webb Ellis invents rugby.
- 10 December – Mary Anning finds the first complete Plesiosaurus skeleton, on the Jurassic Coast.
- Beginning of the first Anglo-Ashanti war.
- Excise Act reduces duties on the distillation of whisky, encouraging its commercial production.
- Thomas Campbell's poem The Last Man.
- Thomas De Quincey's critical essay On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth (in The London Magazine, October).
- Mrs Markham's children's A History of England from the First Invasion by the Romans to the End of the Reign of George III
- Sir Walter Scott's novels Peveril of the Peak, Quentin Durward and St. Ronan's Well.
- Thomas Wakley's medical journal The Lancet (first published 5 October ).
- 3 January – Robert Whitehead, marine engineer (died 1905)
- 8 January – Alfred Russel Wallace, naturalist and biologist (died 1913)
- 13 August – Goldwin Smith, historian (died 1910)
- 3 September – Hardinge Giffard, 1st Earl of Halsbury, lawyer, Lord Chancellor (died 1921)
- 26 January – Edward Jenner, physician and pioneer of vaccination (born 1749)
- 27 January – Charles Hutton, mathematician (born 1737)
- 7 February – Mrs Radcliffe, writer (born 1764)
- 26 February – John Philip Kemble, actor (born 1757)
- 14 March – John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent, Royal Navy admiral (born 1735)
- 23 April – Joseph Nollekens, sculptor (born 1737)
- 19 June – William Combe, writer, poet and adventurer (born 1742)
- 8 July – Sir Henry Raeburn, Scottish portrait painter (born 1756)
- 11 September – David Ricardo, economist (born 1772)
- 23 September – Matthew Baillie, Scottish-born physician and pathologist (born 1761)
- 30 October – Edmund Cartwright, clergyman and inventor of the power loom (born 1743)
- Aldhouse-Green, Stephen (October 2001). "Great Sites: Paviland Cave". British Archaeology (61). Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 252–253. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "Timeline of capital punishment in Britain". Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Drewry, Charles Stewart (1832). A Memoir of Suspension Bridges: comprising the History Of Their Origin And Progress. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman. pp. 69–74 & Plates. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
- Torrens, Hugh (1995). "Mary Anning (1799–1847) of Lyme; 'The Greatest Fossilist the World Ever Knew'". The British Journal for the History of Science. 25 (3): 257–284.