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1829 (MDCCCXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1829th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 829th year of the 2nd millennium, the 29th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1829, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 19 – August Klingemann's adaptation of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust premieres in Braunschweig.
- February 27 – Battle of Tarqui took place.
- March 4 – Andrew Jackson is sworn in as the seventh President of the United States.
- March 11 – German composer Felix Mendelssohn conducts the first performance of Johann Sebastian Bach's St Matthew Passion since the latter's death in 1750, in Berlin; the success of this performance sparks a revival of interest in Bach.
- March 22 – Greece receives autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in the London Protocol, signed by Russia, France and Britain, effectively ending the Greek War of Independence. Greece continues to seek full independence through diplomatic negotiations with the three Great Powers.
- March 31 – Pope Pius VIII succeeds Pope Leo XII as the 253rd pope.
- April–September – Felix Mendelssohn pays his first visit to Britain. This includes the first London performance of his concert overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream and his trip to Fingal's Cave.
- April 1 – Vicente Guerrero becomes the president of Mexico.
- April 4 – The Mexican city of Cuautla, Morelos, is founded.
- April 13 – Passage of the Catholic Relief Act by Parliament of the United Kingdom granting a substantial measure of Catholic emancipation in Britain and Ireland.
- May 6 – The patent for an instrument called the accordion is applied for by Cyrill Demian (Officially approved on May 23.)
- May 15 – Joseph Smith claims to receive the Aaronic Priesthood from John the Baptist.
- June 1 – The Philadelphia Inquirer is founded as The Pennsylvania Inquirer.
- June 3 – The Swan River Colony (later to become the cities of Perth and Fremantle) is founded in Western Australia. This secures the western 'third' of the Australian landmass for the British.
- June 5 – Slave trade: HMS Pickle captures the armed slave ship Voladora off the coast of Cuba.
- June 10 – The Oxford University Boat Club wins the first inter-university Boat Race, rowed at Henley-on-Thames.
- June 19 – Robert Peel establishes the Metropolitan Police Service in London, the first modern police force. The first officers, known by the nickname "bobbies", go on patrol on September 29.
- July 2 – Russo-Turkish War (1828–29): Russian Field-Marshal Hans Karl von Diebitsch launches the Transbalkan offensive, which brings the Russian army within 68 km of Istanbul.
- July 4 – George Shillibeer begins operating the first bus service in London.
- July 23 – In the United States, William Burt obtains the first patent for a form of typewriter, the typographer.
- August 8 – France: The Prince de Polignac succeeds the Vicomte de Martignac as Prime Minister of France.
- August 10 – First ascent of Finsteraarhorn, the highest summit of the Bernese Alps.
- August 12 – Mrs. Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the ship Sulphur, cuts down a tree to mark the founding day of the town of Perth in Western Australia.
- August 14 – * King's College London is founded by Royal Charter under the patronage of King George IV and the Prime Minister, The Duke of Wellington.
- September 16 – Russo-Turkish War (1828–29): The Treaty of Adrianople gains for Russia some territory at the mouth of the Danube and along the eastern coast of the Black Sea.
- October 1 – South African College inaugurated in Cape Town.
- October 8 – Rail transport: Stephenson's Rocket wins the Rainhill Trials.
- November 5 – Technical University of Denmark (DTU) opens.
- November 30 – The original Welland Canal opens for a trial run with a ceremony at Port Dalhousie.
- December 4 – India: In the face of fierce opposition, British Lord William Bentinck carries a regulation declaring that all who abet suttee in India are guilty of culpable homicide.
- The Chalmers University of Technology is founded in Gothenburg.
- The last of the Bounty mutineers dies at Pitcairn Island.
- January 1 – Tommaso Salvini, Italian actor (d. 1915)
- January 3 – Konrad Duden, German philologist (d. 1911)
- January 17 – Catherine Booth, the Mother of The Salvation Army (d. 1890)
- January 21 – King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway (d. 1907)
- January 27 – Isaac Roberts, Welsh astronomer (d. 1904)
- February 2
- February 26 – Levi Strauss, American clothing designer (d. 1902)
- March 2 – Carl Schurz, German revolutionary and American statesman (d. 1906)
- March 19 – Carl Frederik Tietgen, Danish financier and industrialist (d. 1901)
- April 10 – William Booth, the founder of The Salvation Army (d. 1912)
- May 5 – Shusaku Honinbo, Japanese Go player (d. 1862)
- May 8 – Louis Moreau Gottschalk, American composer and pianist (d. 1869)
- June 5 – George Stephen, 1st Baron Mount Stephen, Scottish-Canadian businessman and philanthropist (d. 1921)
- June 6 – Allan Octavian Hume, British civil servant (d. 1912)
- June 8 – John Everett Millais, British Pre-Raphaelite painter (d. 1896)
- June 16 – Geronimo, Apache leader (d. 1909)
- July 9 – Robert Franklin Armfield U.S. Representative from North Carolina (d. 1898)
- July 14 – Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1896)
- July 26 – Auguste Marie François Beernaert, Belgian statesman, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1912)
- August 24 – Emanuella Carlbeck, Swedish social reformer (d. 1901)
- September 3 – Adolf Eugen Fick, German-born physician and physiologist (d. 1901)
- September 7 – August Kekulé, German chemist (d. 1896)
- September 12 – Anselm Feuerbach, German painter (d. 1880)
- October 3 – Sigismund von Schlichting, Prussian general (d. 1909)
- October 5 – Chester A. Arthur, 21st President of the United States (d. 1886)
- November 9 – Peter Lumsden, British general in Indian army (d. 1918)
- November 28 – Anton Rubinstein, Russian pianist and composer (d. 1894)
- unknown date – Anna Haslam, Irish women's rights activist and suffragist (d. 1922)
- January 29
- February 10 – Pope Leo XII (b. 1760)
- February 11 – Alexander Griboyedov, Russian playwright and diplomat (b. 1795)
- February 21 – Kittur Chennamma, Indian queen regnant (b. 1778)
- April 6 – Niels Henrik Abel, Norwegian mathematician (b. 1802)
- May 10 – Thomas Young, English physician and linguist (b. 1773)
- May 17 – John Jay, first Chief Justice of the United States (b. 1745)
- May 21 – Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg (b. 1755)
- May 29 – Humphry Davy, British chemist (b. 1778)
- May 30 – Louis Aloysius, Prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein (b. 1765)
- June 6 – Shanawdithit, last known pure-blooded member of the Beothuk people (b. c.1801)
- June 15 – Therese Huber, German writer and scholar (b. 1764)
- June 27 – James Smithson, British mineralogist and chemist, whose fortune eventually went to the United States of America and was used to initially fund the Smithsonian Institution (b. 1764)
- July 23 – Wojciech Bogusławski, actor and director, "father of Polish theatre" (b. 1757)
- October 10 – Maria Elizabetha Jacson, British botanist (b. 1755)
- November 14 – Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, French chemist and discoverer of beryllium and chromium (b. 1763)
- November 26 – Bushrod Washington, American Supreme Court justice (b. 1762)
- December 12 – John Lansing, Jr., American statesman (disappeared) (b. 1754)
- December 28 – Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, French scientist (b. 1744)
- December 29 – Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg (b. 1797) (scarlet fever)
- undated - Huang Lü, Chinese scientist.
- Richard Acland Armstrong (1881). The Modern review. J. Clarke & Co. pp. 152–. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- Grove, George (1 October 1904). "Mendelssohn's Scotch Symphony". The Musical Times. 45 (740): 644. JSTOR 904111.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "Foundations of The Boat Race". The Xchanging Boat Race. Theboatrace.org. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
- "Icons, a portrait of England 1820-1840". Archived from the original on September 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12.