1831 in Australia
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The year of the Ripon Land Grant, which attracted many settlers to Australia.
- Governor of New South Wales - Ralph Darling (to 23 October).
- Governor of New South Wales - Major-General Sir Richard Bourke (from 23 October).
- Lieutenant-Governor of Tasmania - Colonel George Arthur
- Lieutenant-Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony - Captain James Stirling
- 4 March - James Stirling commissioned as Lieutenant-Governor of Western Australia, rectifying the absence of a legal instrument providing the authority detailed in Stirling's Instructions of 30 December 1828.
- 14 March - The Surprise, the first paddle steamer built in Australia, was launched in Sydney.
- 18 April - The Sydney daily newspaper and Australia's oldest newspaper The Sydney Morning Herald is first published.
- The Ripon Land Regulation Act provides land grants.
Arts and literature
- Australia's first novel, Quintus Servinton: A Tale founded upon Incidents of Real Occurrence was written and published in Tasmania . It was written by the convicted English forger Henry Savery and published anonymously.
- Lewis Bernays
- James Boucaut
- William John Clarke
- William Bede Dalley
- John Darling
- Alfred Felton
- Walter Russell Hall
- Laurence Halloran
- Robert Herbert
- Adelaide Ironside
- Martin Howy Irving
- Patrick Jennings
- George Kerferd
- Duncan McIntyre
- Thomas Petrie
- Frederick Pottinger
- Henry Gyles Turner