1831 in the United Kingdom
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- Monarch – William IV
- Prime Minister – Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey (Whig)
- Parliament – 9th (until 23 April), 10th (starting 14 June)
- 3 March – Tithe War breaks out in Ireland.
- 7 March – Royal Astronomical Society receives its Royal Charter.
- 12 April – Broughton Suspension Bridge over the River Irwell collapses under marching troops.
- 27 April – Ending of the Anglo-Ashanti war.
- 28 April–1 June – general election results in a Whig victory, and a mandate for electoral reform.
- May–June – Merthyr Rising in Merthyr Tydfil.
- 30 May – census in the United Kingdom.
- 1 June – Royal Navy officer and explorer James Clark Ross leads the first expedition to reach the Magnetic North Pole.
- 8 June – Freeminers in the Forest of Dean, led by Warren James, break down enclosures in the Forest.
- 1 August – the new London Bridge is officially opened.
- 17 August – the paddle steamer Rothsay Castle is wrecked at the eastern end of the Menai Strait with the loss of 93 lives.
- 29 August – Michael Faraday demonstrates electromagnetic induction.
- 8 September – coronation of King William IV.
- 22 September – the House of Commons passes the Reform Bill, but this is later defeated in the Lords.
- 27 September – British Association for the Advancement of Science first meets, in York.
- October – King's College London opens.
- 9–11 October – riots in Nottingham: Nottingham Castle and a silk mill at Beeston are gutted by fire.
- 15 October – Truck Act prohibits payment of wages other than in cash.
- 26 October – cholera epidemic begins in Sunderland.
- 28 October – Michael Faraday constructs the first dynamo.
- 31 October – Queen Square riots, Bristol: Rioters burn down 100 houses in Bristol (including the Bishop's palace); intervention by the 14th Dragoons leads to death or injury of hundreds.
- December – first meeting in England of the Plymouth Brethren, organised primarily by George Wigram, Benjamin Wills Newton and John Nelson Darby.
- 27 December – Charles Darwin embarks on his historic voyage aboard HMS Beagle from Plymouth.
- Undated – The house which will eventually contain Abbey Road Studios is built in the St John's Wood district of London.
- January – Joseph Livesey begins publishing The Moral Reformer in Preston, Lancashire, the first publication of the temperance movement in England.
- Mrs Gore's novels Pin Money, Mothers and Daughters, The School for Coquettes and The Tuileries.
- Thomas Hood's poem The Dream of Eugene Aram, the Murderer.
- Thomas Love Peacock's anonymous novel Crotchet Castle.
- Mary Prince's slave narrative The History of Mary Prince.
- 21 March – Dorothea Beale, proponent of women's education (died 1906)
- 7 May – Richard Norman Shaw, architect (died 1912)
- 16 May – David E. Hughes, musician and professor of music (died 1900)
- 13 June – James Clerk Maxwell, physicist (died 1879)
- 14 October – Samuel W. Johnson, railway locomotive engineer (died 1912)
- 15 October – Isabella Bird, explorer, writer, photographer and naturalist (died 1904)
- 21 February – Robert Hall, Baptist minister (born 1764)
- 20 April – John Abernethy, surgeon (born 1764)
- 8 June – Sarah Siddons, actress (born 1755 in Wales)
- December – Happy Jerry, mandrill (born before 1815 in West Africa)
- "A brief history of the RAS". Royal Astronomical Society. Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
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- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 257–258. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Anstis, Ralph (1986). Warren James and the Dean Forest Riots. Coalway: Albion House. ISBN 978-0-9511371-0-9.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "Icons, a portrait of England 1820–1840". Archived from the original on 22 September 2007. Retrieved 12 September 2007.
- Beckett, John (20 July 2008). "Riot and rebellion". The Nottinghamshire Heritage Gateway. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
- The History Today Companion to British History. London: Collins & Brown. 1995. p. 762. ISBN 1-85585-178-4.
- "Revolting riots in Queen Square". Made in Bristol. BBC. 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- Burnham, Jonathan D. (2004). "The Emergence of the Plymouth Brethren". A Story of Conflict: the Controversial Relationship Between Benjamin Wills Newton and John Nelson Darby. Carlisle: Paternoster Press. ISBN 978-1-84227-191-9. OCLC 56336926.
- Livingstone, Elizabeth A. (2000). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280057-2. OCLC 46858944.
- Leavis, Q. D. (1965). Fiction and the Reading Public (2nd ed.). London: Chatto & Windus.