1833 in the United Kingdom
- 3 January – reassertion of British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands by British forces in the South Atlantic.
- 25 May – Royal Horticultural Society holds the first flower show in Britain.
- 5 June – Ada Lovelace is introduced to Charles Babbage by Mary Somerville.
- 14 July – John Keble preaches a sermon on "National Apostasy", launching the Oxford Movement within the Church of England.
- 28 August – the Slavery Abolition Act receives Royal Assent, abolishing slavery in most of the British Empire.
- 29 August – the Factory Act makes it illegal to employ children less than 9 years old in factories and limits child workers of 9 to 13 years of age to a maximum of 9 hours a day.
- December – Edwin Chadwick introduces the Ten Hours Bill in Parliament.
- Bank Notes Act gives Bank of England notes over £5 in value the status of "legal tender" in England and Wales.
- Quakers and Moravians Act allows Quakers and Moravians to substitute an affirmation for a legal oath in accordance with their religious beliefs.
- The Preston Temperance Society is founded by Joseph Livesey, pioneering the temperance movement and teetotalism.
- Laying out of Moor Park, Preston, by the local authority as a (partly) public park begins.
- First of the Bridgewater Treatises, examining science in relation to God.
- Serialisation of Thomas Carlyle's Sartor Resartus in Fraser's Magazine.
- Charles Dickens' first published work of fiction, "A Dinner at Poplar Walk", first of what will become Sketches by Boz, appears unsigned in the Monthly Magazine (London, 1 December).
- Edward Bulwer's novel Godolphin.
- Mrs Favell Lee Mortimer's instructional text The Peep of Day, or, A series of the earliest religious instruction the infant mind is capable of receiving.
- Alfred Tennyson's collection Poems including "The Lady of Shalott".
- Publication of The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge edited by George Long begins.
- William Sandys' collection Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern.
- 23 January – Sir Lewis Morris, Anglo-Welsh poet (died 1907)
- 28 January – Charles George Gordon, British army officer and administrator (died 1885)
- 27 July – Thomas George Bonney, geologist (d. 1923)
- 12 August – Aylmer Spicer Cameron, VC recipient (d. 1909)
- 26 August – Henry Fawcett, statesman, economist and Postmaster General (d. 1884)
- 28 August – Sir Edward Burne-Jones, Anglo-Welsh artist (d. 1898)
- 11 December Francis Anstie, physician and medical researcher (d. 1874)
- date unknown – James James, harpist and composer of the Welsh national anthem (d. 1902)
- 9 January – Sir Thomas Foley, admiral (b. 1757)
- 23 January – Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, admiral (b. 1757)
- 16 April – Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Carnarvon (b. 1772)
- 22 April – Richard Trevithick, Cornish-born inventor, mechanical engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive (b. 1771)
- 15 May
- 2 June – Simon Byrne, prizefighter (b. 1806)
- 10 July – George Agar-Ellis, 1st Baron Dover, man of letters (b. 1797)
- 29 July – William Wilberforce, abolitionist (b. 1759)
- 11 November – James Grant, navigator (b. 1772)
- 3 December – Adam Buck, Irish-born neo-classical portraitist and miniature painter (b. 1759)
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Hyman, Anthony (1982). Charles Babbage: pioneer of the computer. Oxford University Press. pp. 177–8. ISBN 0-19-858170-X.
- Butler, Perry (2004). "Keble, John (1792–1866)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2014-05-16. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- "Icons, a portrait of England 1820–1840". Archived from the original on 22 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- Bank of England. "A brief history of banknotes". Retrieved 2007-10-08.
- Gately, Iain (2009). Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol. New York: Gotham Books. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-592-40464-3.
- Robson, John (1990). "The Fiat and Finger of God: The Bridgewater Treatises". In Lightman, Bernard; Frank Turner. Victorian Faith in Crisis: Essays on Continuity and Change in Nineteenth-Century Religious Belief.