1834 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales - Major-General Sir Richard Bourke
- Lieutenant-Governor of Tasmania - Colonel George Arthur
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony - Captain James Stirling
- 1 January—The Western Australian Police Force is formed.
- 14 January-The ten remaining convicts at the Macquarie Harbour Penal Station hijack a brig and escape to Chile in the Frederick escape
- 28 October—The Battle of Pinjarra occurs in the Swan River Colony in present-day Pinjarra, Western Australia. Between 14-40 Aborigines are killed by British colonists.
- 19 November—The first permanent European settlement on the north coast of Bass Strait is established at Portland by Edward Henty.
- Louisa Atkinson
- James Charles Cox
- George Dibbs
- Patrick Durack
- Duncan Gillies
- Arthur Orton
- Christopher Augustine Reynolds
- John Tebbutt
- Roger Vaughan
- Peter Waite
- William John Wills
- William Windeyer