1837 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales - Major-General Sir Richard Bourke
- Governor of South Australia - Captain John Hindmarsh
- Lieutenant-Governor of Tasmania - Captain Sir John Franklin
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony - Captain James Stirling
- 2 January - The Supreme Court of South Australia is established by Letters Patent, five days after the founding of the colony.
- 6 March - The Theatre Royal in Hobart opened. It remains Australia's oldest working theatre.
- 28 March - The Hoddle Grid of streets for the central business district is surveyed by Robert Hoddle.
- 1 June - First inner-city land sale in Melbourne.
- 10 June - The first whale is caught in Western Australia.
- John Atherton
- Gracius Broinowski
- Ben Hall
- William Hann
- Ernest Henry
- James Venture Mulligan
- Thomas Playford
- Frederick Wolseley
- 10 February – Frederick Goulburn, first Colonial Secretary of New South Wales (b. 1788)
- William Cox
- Joseph Gellibrand
- Francis Greenway
- James Ruse