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Events from the year 1839 in Canada.
- February 15 - Chevalier DeLorimier and others who joined in the Rebellion are executed.
- April 11 - Death of John Galt, novelist, one of the originators of the British American Land Company.
- June 24 - Last meeting of the Committee of Trade, forerunner of the Board of Trade.
- September 26 - Canadian rebels are transported to New South Wales.
- October 19 - Hon C. Thompson, Governor of Upper and Lower Canada, arrives. It is determined that Upper and Lower Canada shall share revenue in the ratio of 2 to 3.
Full date unknown
- Lord Durham's report recommends the establishment of responsible government and the union of Upper and Lower Canada to speed the assimilation of French-speaking Canadians.
- Territorial disputes between lumbermen from Maine and New Brunswick lead to armed conflict in the Aroostook River valley (the Aroostook War).
- First Horse Railway in Upper Canada.
- Mount Allison University founded by Charles Frederick Allison in Sackville, New Brunswick.
- January 1 - Annie L. Jack, author
- January 29 - Élie Saint-Hilaire, educator, farmer and politician (died 1888)
- May 8 - Adolphe-Basile Routhier, judge, author and lyricist (died 1920)
- May 31 - Louis-Alphonse Boyer, politician (died 1916)
- October 8 - George Edwin King, jurist, politician and 2nd Premier of New Brunswick (died 1901)
- September 17 - Antonin Nantel, priest, teacher, school administrator, and author (died 1929)
- November 16 - Louis-Honoré Fréchette, poet, politician, playwright and short story writer (died 1908)
Full date unknown
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