1842 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales - Sir George Gipps
- Governor of South Australia - Sir George Grey
- Governor of Tasmania - Captain Sir John Franklin
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony - John Hutt.
- 20 July - an Act (6 Vic.No 3) passed "to declare the town of Sydney to be a city and to incorporate the inhabitants thereof".
- 12 August - Melbourne incorporated as a "town".
- 21 August - Hobart Town is proclaimed a city.
- 15 January - Mary MacKillop, the only Australian nun to be canonized, is born in Fitzroy, Victoria
- 10 October - Emily Dobson, philanthropist (d. 1934)
- Joseph Palmer Abbott
- John Cox Bray
- John Brazier
- Frederick Broome
- Charles French
- John Gilbert
- William Gosse
- Paddy Hannan
- Julia Matthews
- Alexander Onslow
- Andrew Scott (Captain Moonlite)
- Emma Withnell
- "History of Sydney City Council" (PDF). City of Sydney. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2007.
- Reynolds, I. A. "Dobson, Emily (1842–1934)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 9 February 2018.