1844 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales – Sir George Gipps
- Governor of South Australia – Sir George Grey
- Governor of Tasmania – Sir John Eardley-Wilmot
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony – John Hutt.
- 1 January – Australia's first ringing peal rang from the bells of St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney
- 6 April – John Gavin is the first European settler to be legally executed in Western Australia. Gavin, a fifteen-year-old apprentice, was found guilty of the murder of his employer's son, George Pollard.
- 12 September – The Royal Society of Tasmania was formed. It was the first branch of the Society established outside Britain.
Exploration and settlement
- August – Charles Sturt explores the Stony Desert, fails to establish existence of an inland sea.
- 1 October – Ludwig Leichhardt leads expedition starting from Jimbour on the Darling Downs to Port Essington, Northern Territory, arriving in December 1845.
- Percival Ball
- Francis Boyce
- Henry Briggs
- Ada Cambridge
- Ebenezer Wake Cook
- John Gavan Duffy
- Andrew Harper
- John Madden
- John See
- John McGarvie Smith
- Charles Strong
- William Tietkens
- Watkin Wynne
- "Quarter Sessions". The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal. National Library of Australia. 6 April 1844. p. 3. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- Cameron, Angus, ed. (1985). "Part One: Facts and Figures: An Australian Historical Chronology". The Australian Almanac: 800 Pages Crammed with Australian and World Facts: Politics, the Arts, Geography, History and Much More. North Ryde, NSW: Angus & Robertson. p. 12. ISBN 0-207-15108-3.