1845 in the United Kingdom
Events from the year 1845 in the United Kingdom.
- 3 January – first known arrest of a fugitive achieved through use of the then new electric telegraph when John Tawell is arrested after being followed by a detective alerted prior to Tawell's arrival at London Paddington station.
- 7 February – in the British Museum, a drunken visitor smashes the Portland Vase which takes months to repair.
- 11 March – Flagstaff War: Chiefs Kawiti and Hone Heke lead 700 Māori people in the burning of the British colonial settlement of Kororāreka, later known as Russell, New Zealand.
- 15 March – first University Boat Race to use the present Putney to Mortlake course (albeit in the reverse direction to that used today).
- 17 March – Stephen Perry patents the rubber band.
- 26 March – Sisterhood of the Holy Cross ('Park Village Community') established as the first Anglican sisterhood, to minister to the poor of St Pancras, London.
- 1 May – first cricket match to be played at the Kennington Oval.
- 2 May – suspension bridge at Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, collapses: 79 killed.
- 19 May – HMS Erebus and HMS Terror with 134 men, comprising Sir John Franklin's expedition to find the Northwest Passage, sail from Greenhithe on the Thames. They will last be seen in August entering Baffin Bay.
- 20 May – the last fatal duel between Englishmen on English soil takes place near Gosport. James Alexander Seton is shot and dies twelve days later from his wound. His opponent, Royal Marine Lieutenant Charles Lawes Pym, is tried for murder a year later, but acquitted.
- 21 July – an unprecedented number of railway acts receive Royal Assent from Queen Victoria as the railway mania approaches its peak, Parliament having sanctioned 2,816 mi (4,532 km) of new construction.
- 26 July – 10 August: Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s iron steamship SS Great Britain makes the Transatlantic Crossing from Liverpool to New York, the first screw propelled vessel to make the passage.
- 31 July – Jews are permitted to hold certain municipal offices.
- 9 August – Aberdeen Act instructing the Royal Navy to counter the Brazilian slave trade, signed.
- 9 September – potato blight breaks out in Ireland: beginning of the Great Famine.
- 18 September – Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata formally declared.
- September – first students admitted to the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, the first agricultural college in the English-speaking world.
- 9 October – the eminent and controversial Anglican, John Henry Newman, is received into the Roman Catholic Church.
- 31 October–1 November – an emergency meeting of the Cabinet (summoned on 15 October by Sir Robert Peel, the Prime Minister) votes against Peel on the distribution of famine relief in Ireland, considering it would call the Corn Laws into question.
- 9–10 November – Peel orders the secret purchase of £100,000 worth of maize and meal from the United States for distribution in Ireland.
- 20 November – Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata: Battle of Vuelta de Obligado: the Anglo-French fleet narrowly defeats the Argentine Confederation on the waters of the Paraná River but the victors suffer serious damage to their ships and Argentina attracts political support in South America.
- 5 December – unable to persuade his Cabinet to repeal the Corn Laws in the face of the Great Famine in Ireland, Peel tenders his resignation as Prime Minister to the Queen but is reinstated days later when Lord John Russell is unable to form a government.
- 22–23 December – First Anglo-Sikh War: British forces defeat Sikhs at Battle of Ferozeshah in Punjab.
- 30 December – Queen's Colleges of Belfast, Cork and Galway are incorporated in Ireland.
- Andover workhouse scandal.
- Clarendon slab-serif typeface created by Robert Besley for the Fann Street Foundry.
- Glass tax abolished.
- Eliza Acton's cookbook Modern Cookery for Private Families.
- Thomas De Quincey's essays Suspiria de Profundis (in Blackwood's Magazine).
- Charles Dickens' novella The Cricket on the Hearth (20 December).
- Benjamin Disraeli’s novel Sybil, or The Two Nations.
- Friedrich Engels' treatise The Condition of the Working Class in England (published in Leipzig as Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England).
- William Sewell’s religious novel Hawkstone: a tale of and for England.
- 14 February – Quintin Hogg, philanthropist (died 1903)
- 4 July – Thomas John Barnardo, philanthropist (died 1905)
- 9 July – Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto, politician (died 1914)
- 22 February – Sydney Smith, writer and clergyman (born 1771)
- 17 July – Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (born 1764)
- 12 October – Elizabeth Fry, humanitarian (born 1780)
- Chambers, Robert. "7 February". The Book of Days. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 267–268. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Mumm, Susan (1999). Stolen Daughters, Virgin Mothers: Anglican Sisterhoods in Victorian Britain. Leicester University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-7185-0151-9.
- "The Great Yarmouth Suspension Bridge Disaster – May 2nd 1845" (PDF). Broadland Memories. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
- The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. p. 549. ISBN 1-85986-000-1.
- Jenkins, Bob. "The Last Duel in England". Portsmouth Now & Then. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- Lewin, Henry Grote (1936). The Railway Mania and its aftermath, 1845–1852. London: Railway Gazette.
- Fox, Stephen (2003). Transatlantic: Samuel Cunard, Isambard Brunel, and the Great Atlantic Steamships. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019595-3.
- "Great Britain". The Ships List. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- Sayce, R. B. (1992). The History of the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. Stroud: Sutton. p. ix. ISBN 0-7509-0178-0.
- Woodham-Smith, Cecil (1962). The Great Hunger: Ireland 1845-9. pp. 50–7.
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (2006). Ireland's Great Famine: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. University College Dublin Press. pp. 7–15. ISBN 1-904558-57-7.
- Kinealy, Christine (1994). This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine 1845-52. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. pp. 37–46. ISBN 0-7171-1832-0.
- Donnelly, James S., Jr (2005). The Great Irish Potato Famine. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 0-7509-2928-6.
- Cates, William L. R. (1863). The Pocket Date Book. Chapman and Hall.
- Haralambous, Yannis; Horne, P. Scott (2007). Fonts & Encodings. O'Reilly. p. 397. ISBN 0-596-10242-9.