1850 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales - Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy
- Governor of South Australia - Sir Henry Fox Young
- Governor of Tasmania - Sir William Denison
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony - Captain Charles Fitzgerald.
- 26 January - The Irish Exile, a weekly newspaper, starts publishing in Hobart by Patrick O'Donoghue: aimed mainly at fellow Irish prisoners and deportees.
- 5 August – Port Phillip (later called Victoria) established as a separate colony from New South Wales.
- 1 June – First convicts arrive in Western Australia, ticket-of-leave transportation suspended in New South Wales.
- 1 October - University of Sydney is founded as Australia's first university.
- 17 February - Alf Morgans, Premier of Western Australia (died 1933)
- 26 April - James Drake, Australian politician (died 1915)
- 12 May - Frederick Holder, premier of South Australia (died 1909)
- 22 October - Charles Kingston, Premier of South Australia (died 1908)
- Octavius Beale
- Henry Lowther Clarke
- John Cockburn
- Matthew Henry Davies
- Joseph James Fletcher
- Lawrence Hargrave
- Michael Kelly
- Christie Palmerston
- Mei Quong Tart
- John A. Upton
- 9 February - Elizabeth Macarthur, co-founder of the wool industry in Australia. (born 1766)
- 16 June - William Lawson, explorer and politician. (born 1774)
- William Westall
- "Old and Young Ireland Again". Launceston Examiner (Tas. : 1842 - 1899) (National Library of Australia). 22 May 1850. p. 4 Edition: Morning. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "Important from Van Diemen's Land". South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900) (National Library of Australia). 2 March 1850. p. 2. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Munday, Rosemary, ed. (1991). "How Australia Began: Significant Dates in Australian History". The Bulletin Australian Almanac & Book of Facts 1992. Sydney: Australian Consolidated Press. p. 3. ISSN 1038-054X.
- Cameron, Angus, ed. (1985). "Part One: Facts and Figures: An Australian Historical Chronology". The Australian Almanac: 800 Pages Crammed with Australian and World Facts: Politics, the Arts, Geography, History and Much More. North Ryde, NSW: Angus & Robertson. p. 13. ISBN 0-207-15108-3.