1852 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales - Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy
- Governor of South Australia - Sir Henry Fox Young
- Lieutenant-Governor of Tasmania - Sir William Denison
- Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria - Charles La Trobe
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony - Captain Charles Fitzgerald.
- 10 February - the Supreme Court of Victoria sits for the first time in Melbourne.
- 1-2 April - The Nelson robbery takes place in Hobsons Bay.
- 25 June - The Murrumbidgee River flooded Gundagai, New South Wales killing 89 of the population of 250. The town was moved to higher ground.
- 4 July - Anti-Chinese riots occur in Victoria, Australia.
- 11 October - The University of Sydney was inaugurated, Australia's first university.
- 19 January - Thomas Price
- 22 January - Elizabeth Farley
- 28 January - Louis Brennan
- 8 February - Malcolm McEacharn
- 26 March - Alexander Sutherland
- 14 April - John Quick, politician (died 1932)
- 20 July - William Creswell
- 10 August - Leonard Kimberly
- 12 August - Algernon Keith-Falconer
- 19 August - Edward Rennie
- 4 September - Edmund Banfield
- 18 September - Clement Wragge
- 20 November - Henry Hoyle, politician and co-founder of the New South Wales Rugby League (died 1926)
- 27 December - John Ferguson
- Jeffery Hart Bent
- George Evans
- James Mudie
- date unknown