1853 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales - Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy
- Governor of South Australia - Sir Henry Young
- Governor of Tasmania - Sir William Denison
- Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria - Charles La Trobe
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony - Captain Charles Fitzgerald
This was a year of intense political agitation by miners on the Victorian goldfields.
- 8 January - Victoria Police formally established by Act of Parliament
- 22 January - University of Melbourne formally established by Act of Parliament
- 17 March - St Kilda Road robberies
- 1 August - The Bendigo Petition, 30 metres long with at least 23,000 signatures requesting reform of the license fee system that applied to miners on the gold fields, was sent to Governor La Trobe in Melbourne.
- 10 August - A Jubilee Festival was held in Hobart to mark the cessation of convict transportation to the colony.
- 15 August - the term Bunyip aristocracy was coined by Daniel Deniehy in a speech attacking the proposal by William Wentworth to create a system of hereditary peerage in Australia
- 3 October - Illawarra Steam Navigation Company incorporated
- 1 November - The first postage stamps of Tasmania are issued.
- December - Victoria Police Gazette first published
- Hardy Wine Company established
Exploration and settlement
- European settlement began at:
- Cleve, South Australia
- Dongara, Western Australia
- Nailsworth, South Australia
Science and technology
- 10 January - the Adelaide Philosophical Society founded, predecessor of the Royal Society of South Australia
- 23 September - occupancy of the present site of the Melbourne Cricket Ground, which was part of a 'police paddock', was given to the Melbourne Cricket Club by Lieutenant Governor Charles La Trobe. This followed the forced resumption of land from the then-15-year-old Club to build Australia's first steam train railway.
- Neville Henry Cayley
- Frederick Deeming
- Archibald James Campbell
- Charles Douglas Richardson
- Leonard Rodway
- Frederick Spofforth