1855 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales — Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy
- Governor of South Australia — Sir Richard G. MacDonnell, CB
- Governor of Tasmania — Sir William Denison
- Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria — Charles La Trobe; from June Sir Charles Hotham
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony — Captain Charles Fitzgerald
- 8 September — Queen Victoria signs an Order in Council to change the name of Van Diemen's Land to Tasmania.
- 12 July — David Angus, founder of Angus & Robertson, born in Thurso, Scotland.
- 28 October — Francis James Gillen, an early anthropologist who studied Indigenous culture.
- 3 April – John Bateman, Fremantle pioneer, merchant and whaler (b. 1789)
- 23 January – John Burdett Wittenoom, Swan River Colony clergyman (b. 1788)
- 31 December – Charles Hotham, Governor of Victoria (b. 1806)
- 19 March – Thomas Bock, artist (b. 1790)