1857 in science
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Rev. M. J. Berkeley publishes Introduction to Cryptogamic Botany.
- Galen Clark discovers the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias in California.
- Robert Bunsen invents apparatus for measuring effusion.
- Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz proposes that carbon is tetravalent, or forms exactly four chemical bonds.
- January 9 – The 7.9 Mw Fort Tejon earthquake shakes Central and Southern California with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). The event, which involved slip on the southern segment of the San Andreas Fault, left two people dead.
- May 16 – The British North American Exploring Expedition, led by Irish geographer Capt. John Palliser, sets off for a three-year exploration of Western Canada.
- March 12 – Elizabeth Blackwell opens the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children.
- French surgeon Jean-Louis-Paul Denucé gives the first description of a neonatal incubator.
- French psychiatrist Bénédict Morel publishes Traité des dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l'espèce humaine et des causes qui produisent ces variétés maladives.
- Naturalist P. H. Gosse's creationist text Omphalos: An Attempt to Untie the Geological Knot is published in England.
- January 20 – Vladimir Bekhterev (died 1927), Russian psychologist.
- February 3 – Wilhelm Johannsen (died 1927), Danish plant physiologist and geneticist.
- March 27 – Carl Pearson (died 1936), English mathematician.
- April 30 – Eugen Bleuler (died 1939), Swiss psychiatrist.
- May 13 – Ronald Ross (died 1932), Indian-born British physiologist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902.
- May 15 – Williamina Fleming (died 1911), Scottish-born American astronomer
- August 8 – Henry Fairfield Osborn (died 1935), American paleontologist.
- October 2 – John Macintyre (died 1928), Scottish laryngologist and pioneer radiographer.
- November 1 – John Joly (died 1933), Anglo-Irish physicist.
- November 27 – Charles Sherrington (died 1952), English neurophysiologist and bacteriologist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932.
- January 2 – Andrew Ure (born 1778), Scottish industrial chemist and encyclopaedist.
- May 23 – Augustin Louis Cauchy (born 1789), French mathematician.
- June 21 – Louis Jacques Thénard (born 1777), French chemist.
- July 13 – Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (born 1783), German chemist.
- July 29 – Charles Lucien Bonaparte (born 1803), French naturalist.
- August 12 – William Conybeare (born 1787), English geologist.
- December 15 – George Cayley (born 1773), English aviation pioneer.
- December 17 – Francis Beaufort (born 1774), British hydrographer.
- date unknown
- W. T. L. (1875). "Peter Andreas Hansen". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 35: 168–170. doi:10.1093/mnras/35.4.168. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- "August Kekulé and Archibald Scott Couper". Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- Bowden, Mary Ellen (1997). Chemical achievers : the human face of the chemical sciences. Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation. pp. 91–93. ISBN 9780941901123.
- Biggs, Norman L.; Lloyd, E. Keith; Wilson, Robin J. (1976). Graph Theory 1736–1936. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198539010.