1859 in Australia
- Governor of New South Wales — Sir William Denison
- Governor of Queensland — Sir George Bowen
- Governor of South Australia — Sir Richard MacDonnell
- Governor of Tasmania — Sir Henry Young
- Governor of Victoria — Sir Henry Barkly
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony — Sir Arthur Kennedy
- Premier of New South Wales — Charles Cowper, William Forster
- Premier of Queensland — Robert Herbert
- Premier of South Australia — Richard Hanson
- Premier of Tasmania — Francis Smith
- Premier of Victoria — John O'Shanassy, William Nicholson
- 14 May — Melbourne Football Club is founded.
- 6 June — The colony of Queensland is established by decree of Queen Victoria.
- July — Geelong Football Club is founded.
- 5 August — The passenger steamship SS Admella is shipwrecked on a submerged reef near Mount Gambier South Australia with the loss of 89 lives.
- 6 October — Thomas Austin takes 24 rabbits and 5 hares to Australia in order to release them there as a game. They will multiply exponentially.
- The first permanent educational institution for girls, the East Leigh, is founded in Melbourne by Elizabeth Tripp.
- "Detailed History". geelongcats.com.au. Geelong Cats. Retrieved 7 August 2017.