1860 Republican National Convention
|1860 Presidential Election
Lincoln and Hamlin
|Date(s)||May 16-May 18, 1860|
|Presidential nominee||Abraham Lincoln of Illinois|
|Vice Presidential nominee||Hannibal Hamlin of Maine|
|Other candidates||William H. Seward of New York|
The 1860 Republican National Convention, also known as the 2nd Republican National Convention, was a nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States, held in Chicago, Illinois from May 16 to 18, 1860. The gathering nominated former Representative Abraham Lincoln of Illinois for President of the United States and Senator Hannibal Hamlin of Maine for Vice President.
Other candidates at the convention included former New York Governor William H. Seward, U.S. Senator Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, former U.S. Representative Edward Bates of Missouri, and U.S. Senator Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania.
Seward had been the favorite going into the convention, and led on the first two ballots. His lead soon melted away to the dark horse Lincoln, who captured the nomination on the third ballot. Lincoln's campaign manager, David Davis, was credited with playing a substantial role in the convention outcome.
By 1860 the dissolution of the Whig Party in America had become an accomplished fact, with establishment Whig politicians, former Free Soilers, and a certain number of anti-Catholic populists from the Know Nothing movement flocking to the banner of the fledgling anti-slavery Republican Party. While the Republican Presidential effort on behalf of the 43-year old Colonel John C. Frémont in the 1856 election had met with failure, party gains were made throughout the Northern United States as the sectional crisis over slavery intensified.
Party leaders sought to hold their 1860 nominating convention in the burgeoning Middle Western trade center of Chicago, then a city of little more than 110,000 people. Unfortunately, the growing city did not at that time have a meeting hall of sufficient size for a national political convention, so an appropriation was made for the construction of a new temporary wooden frame assembly hall to seat 10,000 delegates, guests, and observers — a facility known as the "Wigwam". The rapidly designed and constructed building proved to well fit for purpose, featuring excellent lines of sight and stellar acoustics, allowing even an ordinary speaker to be heard throughout the room.
The Convention was the object of the interest and attention of a multitude of curious citizens who crowded the "Wigwam" to the rafters. Delegations seated by state and were virtually devoid of Southern participation, with no delegations attending from the slave states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Florida.
Delegation voting strength was loosely based upon the size of each state's congressional delegation, subject to some modification by the Credentials Committee, with the Northeastern delegations of New York (70), Pennsylvania (54), Massachusetts (26), and New Jersey (14) constituting the largest regional bloc, surpassing the Midwestern states of Ohio (46), Indiana (26), Illinois (22), and Iowa (8). Some 86 votes were apportioned to the six states of New England. Slave and border states with substantial delegations under the rules (but with small actual party organizations) included Kentucky (23), Virginia (23), and Missouri (18). The total of all credentialed delegate votes was 466.
With the convention called to order on May 16, former Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania, author in 1848 of the Wilmot proviso which would have banned slavery from new states incorporated into the Union, was elected temporary chairman of the gathering. Upon his election, Wilmot delivered the keynote speech to the Convention, in which he declared that:
"A great sectional and aristocratic party, or interest, has for years dominated with a high hand over the political affairs of this country. That interest has wrested, and is now wresting, all the great powers of this government to the one object of the extension and nationalization of slavery. It is our purpose, gentlemen, it is the mission of the Republican Party and the basis of its organization, to resist this policy of a sectional interest.... It is our purpose and our policy to resist these new constitutional dogmas that slavery exists by virtue of the constitution wherever the banner of the Union floats."
Organizational tasks filled the rest of the first day's activities, including the appointment of a Credentials Committee and a Resolutions Committee. There were no contested seats although a delegation purporting to represent the state of Texas was ruled ineligible by the Credentials Committee. A Platform Committee was also named, including one delegate from every state and territory in attendance. This committee began its work at once and completed its task with a report on the evening of the second day, May 17.
The reading of the platform, as drafted by the Platform Committee chaired by Judge William Jessup of Pennsylvania, was received with stormy applause and an immediate move followed to adopt the document unanimously and without amendments. An effort followed to amend the platform after adoption with insertion of famous language from the Declaration of Independence that "All men are created equal; and they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights..." This Amendment was initially rejected by the convention, prompting a walkout by its proposer, long time Ohio Congressman Joshua Reed Giddings. The matter was hastily reconsidered by the Convention, and with the addition of the amendment the disgruntled Mr. Giddings returned to his seat, crisis resolved.
The 1860 Republican platform consisted of 17 declarations of principle, of which 10 dealt directly with the issues of free soil principles, slavery, the Fugitive Slave Act, and the preservation of the Union, while the remaining 7 dealing with other issues.
Clauses 12 through 16 of the platform called for a protective tariff, enactment of the Homestead Act, freedom of immigration into the United States and full rights to all immigrant citizens, internal improvements, and the construction of a Pacific railroad.
In addition to the preservation of the Union, all five of these additional promises were enacted by the Thirty-seventh Congress and implemented by Abraham Lincoln or the presidents who immediately succeeded him.
The Republican National Convention met in mid-May, after the Democrats had been forced to adjourn the 1860 Democratic National Convention in Charleston, South Carolina without a nominee and had not yet re-convened in Baltimore, Maryland. With the Democrats in disarray and with a sweep of the Northern states possible, the Republicans were confident going into their convention in Chicago. William H. Seward of New York was considered the front runner, followed by Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, and Missouri's Edward Bates.
As the convention developed, however, it was revealed that Seward, Chase, and Bates had each alienated factions of the Republican Party. Delegates were concerned that Seward was too closely identified with the radical wing of the party, and his moves toward the center had alienated the radicals. Chase, a former Democrat, had alienated many of the former Whigs by his coalition with the Democrats in the late 1840s, had opposed tariffs demanded by Pennsylvania, and critically, had opposition from his own delegation from Ohio. Bates outlined his positions on extension of slavery into the territories and equal constitutional rights for all citizens, positions that alienated his supporters in the border states and southern conservatives. German-Americans in the party opposed Bates because of his past association with the Know-Nothings.
Since it was essential to carry the West, and because Lincoln had a national reputation from his debates and speeches as the most articulate moderate, he won the party's nomination on the third ballot on May 18, 1860. Lincoln associates Leonard Swett, Ward Hill Lamon, and David Davis helped engineer Lincoln's nomination, according to the 1949 doctoral thesis Ward Hill Lamon: Lincoln's Particular Friend, written by Lavern Marshall Hamand at the Graduate College of the University of Illinois.
|Nominee||Home State||1st||2nd||3rd||3rd "corrected"|
|William H. Seward||New York||173.5||184.5||180||111.5|
|Salmon P. Chase||Ohio||49||42.5||24.5||2|
|William L. Dayton||New Jersey||14||10||1||1|
|Benjamin F. Wade||Ohio||3||0||-||-|
|John M. Read||Pennsylvania||1||0||-||-|
|John C. Fremont||California||1||0||-||-|
|Cassius M. Clay||Kentucky||-||2||1||1|
Among other accounts, an article, entitled "The Four Votes", published in the May 19, 1860 edition of the Chicago Press and Tribune attests that after seeing how close Lincoln was to the 233 votes needed, Robert K. Enos, a member of the Ohio delegation, was responsible for getting three fellow Ohio delegates to shift their four votes to Lincoln. This triggered an avalanche towards Lincoln with a final count of 364 votes out of 466 cast.
|Vice Presidential Ballot|
|Cassius M. Clay||Kentucky||100.5||86|
|Andrew H. Reeder||Pennsylvania & Kansas||51||0|
|Henry W. Davis||Maryland||8||0|
|William L. Dayton||New Jersey||3||0|
|John M. Read||Pennsylvania||1||0|
- George O. Seilhamer, Leslie's History of the Republican Party: Vol. 1: Narrative and Critical History, 1856-1898." New York: L.A. Williams Publishing and Engraving Co., 1898; pg. 55.
- Seilhamer, Leslie's History of the Republican Party, vol. 1, pg. 56.
- Proceedings of the Republican National Convention held at Chicago, May 16, 17 and 18, 1860. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons, and Company, 1860; pg. 42.
- Proceedings of the Republican National Convention held at Chicago, May 16, 17 and 18, 1860, pg. 69.
- Proceedings of the Republican National Convention held at Chicago, May 16, 17 and 18, 1860, pg. 75.
- David Wilmot in Proceedings of the Republican National Convention held at Chicago, May 16, 17 and 18, 1860, pg. 5.
- Republican Party National Platform, 1860 Reported from the Platform Committee by Judge Jessup of Pennsylvania and adopted unanimously by the Republican National Convention held at Chicago on May 17, 1860. Broadside printing by The Chicago Press & Tribune, May, 1860
- Proceedings of the Republican national convention held at Chicago, May 16, 17 and 18, 1860
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- Gary Ecelbarger, The Great Comeback: How Abraham Lincoln Beat the Odds to Win the 1860 Republican Nomination. New York: St. Martin's, 2008.
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- Eric Foner, Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
- Jon Grinspan, "'Young Men for War': The Wide Awakes and Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign," Journal of American History, vol. 96, no. 2, (Sept. 2009), pp. 357-378. In JSTOR
- Charles W. Johnson (ed.), Proceedings of the First Three Republican National Conventions of 1856, 1860 and 1864: Including Proceedings of the Antecedent National Convention Held at Pittsburg in February, 1856, as Reported by Horace Greeley. Minneapolis, MN: Harrison and Smith, Printers, 1893.
- Reinhard H. Luthin, "Indiana and Lincoln's Rise to the Presidency," Indiana Magazine of History vol. 38, no. 4 (Dec. 1942), pp. 385-405. In JSTOR
- Amherst W. Kellogg, "The Chicago Convention of 1860," Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 5, no. 1 (Sept. 1921), pp. 99-104. In JSTOR
- Charles Roll, "Indiana's Part in the Nomination of Abraham Lincoln for President in 1860," Indiana Magazine of History, vol. 25, no. 1 (March 1929), pp. 1-13. In JSTOR
- Milton H. Shutes, "Republican Nominating Convention of 1860: A California Report," California Historical Society Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 2 (Jun. 1948), pp. 97-103. In JSTOR
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- Glyndon G. Van Deusen, "Thurlow Weed's Analysis of William H. Seward's Defeat in the Republican Convention of 1860," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, vol. 34, no. 1 (June 1947), pp. 101-104. In JSTOR
- Proceedings of the Republican National Convention held at Chicago, May 16, 17 and 18, 1860. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons, and Company, 1860.
- "Republican National Platform, 1860," Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum, www.cprr.org/ —Digital image of printed campaign flyer.