1860 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales - Sir William Denison
- Governor of Queensland - Sir George Bowen
- Governor of South Australia - Sir Richard G. MacDonnell
- Governor of Tasmania - Sir Henry Young
- Governor of Victoria - Sir Henry Barkly
- Premier of New South Wales - William Forster until 8 March then John Robertson
- Premier of Queensland - Robert Herbert
- Premier of South Australia - Richard Hanson until 9 May then Thomas Reynolds
- Premier of Tasmania - Francis Smith until 1 November then William Weston
- Premier of Victoria - William Nicholson until 26 November then Richard Heales
- 20 August - Burke and Wills expedition sets off from Royal Park, Melbourne at about 4pm watched by around 15,000 spectators.
- 12 November - The Victorian College for the Deaf is opened in a small house in Peel Street Windsor.
- 12 December - Initial riots on the Lambing Flat goldfields near present-day Young, New South Wales.
- 20 June - Jack Worrall, Australian cricketer, footballer, and coach (died 1937)
- 23 June - Sir Baldwin Spencer, the first person to study Australia anthropology.
- 7 December - Joseph Cook, sixth Prime Minister of Australia (died 1947)
- 31 March – Frederick Irwin, acting Governor of Western Australia (b. 1788)
- 1 July – Robert Thomas, (b. 1781), newspaper proprietor