1862 and 1863 United States House of Representatives elections

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1862 and 1863 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1860 / 61 June 2, 1862 – November 3, 1863[Note 1] 1864 / 65 →

All 184 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives[Note 2]
93 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  GalushaAaron.jpg SSCox.jpg
Leader Galusha Grow Samuel Cox
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Pennsylvania-14th
(lost re-election)
Ohio-7th
Last election 108 seats 45 seats
Seats won 87[Note 3] 72
Seat change Decrease 21 Increase 27

  Third party
  Francis Thomas of Maryland - photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Francis Thomas
Party Unionist
Leader's seat Maryland-4th
Last election 28 seats
Seats won 25
Seat change Decrease 3

Speaker before election

Galusha Grow (defeated)
Republican

Elected Speaker

Schuyler Colfax
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held during President Abraham Lincoln's first term at various dates in different states from June 1862 to November 1863. Republicans lost 22 seats and the majority, while Democrats gained 28.

The Civil War to date had been only weakly successful for the Union, but had wrought major, disruptive change in the size and reach of the Federal Government, which had hitherto been small and little seen beyond post offices, customs houses in ports, and Army posts. The Republican Party was also relatively new, yet had led the Union down a radical path of rapidly industrializing, destructive total war. Voters turned on the Administration. Points of dissatisfaction included failure to deliver a speedy victory at times verging on military incompetence, rising inflation, new taxes, ugly rumors of corruption, suspension of habeas corpus, conscription or the draft law, and racist fear of a near future in which larger numbers of free African-Americans would compete for jobs and depress wages. For example, expressing a typical sentiment, the Cincinnati Gazette editorialized that voters "are depressed by the interminable nature of this war, as so far conducted, and by the rapid exhaustion of the national resources without progress."[1]

Short of a majority, Republicans retained control with the assistance of the Unionist Party. In September 1862, President Lincoln warned the South that he planned by executive order to liberate all slaves in rebelling states as of January 1, 1863. The popularity of emancipation varied by region. It was more popular in New England and areas near the Great Lakes, and less popular in cities with large immigrant populations and in the southern portion of the North. Democrats hailed the elections as a repudiation of emancipation, but the results did not meaningfully hamper prosecution of the war.[2]

In Lincoln's home district of Springfield, Illinois, John T. Stuart, a Democrat and one of Lincoln's former law partners defeated the Republican incumbent. Forms of racism, including fear of an influx freed slaves and preventing black suffrage, were primarily responsible.[3] The sitting speaker of the House, Galusha Grow, also lost his reeletion bid.

Election summaries[edit]

The eight Representatives remaining from Tennessee and Virginia in the 37th Congress were absent from the 38th Congress. Other seceded states remained unrepresented, leaving 58 vacancies[4] Upon admission, West Virginia was allotted three Representatives [5] and during the second session one seat was added for the new State of Nevada.[6]

Reapportionment transpired according to the 1860 Census, under the 1850 Apportionment bill[7] providing a total of 233 seats. A later bill added eight seats,[8] increasing the number to 241.

85 2 25 72
Republican IR Unionist Democratic
State Type Date Total seats Republican Democratic Unionist[a]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Oregon At-large June 2, 1862 1 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Maine Districts September 8, 1862 5 Decrease 1 4 Decrease 2 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Indiana Districts October 14, 1862 11 Steady 4 Decrease 3 7 Increase 3 0 Steady
Iowa Districts 6 Increase 4 6 Increase 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio Districts 19 Decrease 2 5 Decrease 8 14 Increase 6 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts 24 Decrease 1 12[Note 3] Decrease 7 12 Increase 6 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 1, 1862 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Massachusetts Districts 10 Decrease 1 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Illinois Districts November 4, 1862
(Election Day)[b]
14 Increase 5 5 Increase 1 9 Increase 4 0 Steady
Kansas At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan Districts 6 Increase 2 5 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Minnesota Districts 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri Districts 9 Increase 2 1 Steady 0 Decrease 5 8 Increase 7
New Jersey Districts 5 Steady 1 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady
New York Districts 31 Decrease 2 14 Decrease 9 17 Increase 7 0 Steady
Wisconsin Districts 6 Increase 3 3 Steady 3 Increase 3 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1863 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire Districts March 10, 1863 3 Steady 2 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Rhode Island Districts April 1, 1863 2 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease 2
Connecticut Districts April 6, 1863 4 Steady 3 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 3, 1863 9 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 9 Steady
Vermont Districts September 1, 1863 3 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California At-large September 2, 1863 3 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia[Note 4] Districts October 22, 1863 3 Increase3 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase 3
Maryland Districts November 3, 1863 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 4 Decrease 2
Secessionist States
Alabama Districts 6 Decrease 1
Arkansas Districts 3 Increase 1
Florida At-large 1 Steady
Georgia Districts 7 Decrease 1
Louisiana Districts 5 Increase 1 Decrease 2
Mississippi Districts 5 Steady
North Carolina Districts 7 Decrease 1
South Carolina Districts 4 Decrease 2
Tennessee Districts 8 Decrease 2 Decrease 3
Texas Districts 4 Increase 2
Virginia Districts 11[c] Decrease 2 Decrease 5
Total[Note 2] 184
58 Vacancies[d]
Increase 3 87[Note 3]
47.3%
Decrease 23 72
39.1%
Increase 27 25
13.6%
Decrease 5
House seats
Republican
47.28%
Democratic
39.13%
Unionist
13.59%

California[edit]

Note: From statehood to 1866, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.

District Incumbent Party Results Candidates
California at-large Timothy Phelps Republican Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Cornelius Cole (Republican) 20%
William Higby (Republican) 19.9%
Thomas B. Shannon (Republican) 19.9%
John Bigler (Independent) 13.4%
John B. Weller (Independent) 13.4%
Ninian E. Whiteside (Democratic) 13.4%
California at-large Aaron A. Sargent Republican Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
California at-large Frederick F. Low Republican Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[9]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Ohio 2 John A. Gurley Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 3 Clement Vallandigham Democratic 1858 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 4 William Allen Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 5 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 6 Chilton A. White Democratic 1860 Re-elected
Ohio 7 Richard A. Harrison Unionist 1861 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic loss.
Samuel S. Cox
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Samuel Shellabarger
Redistricted from the 8th district
Republican 1860 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic loss.
Ohio 8 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 9 Warren P. Noble Democratic 1860 Re-elected
Samuel T. Worcester
Redistricted from the 13th district
Republican 1861 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley
Redistricted from the 5th district
Republican 1858 Re-elected
Ohio 11 Valentine B. Horton Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 12 Carey A. Trimble
Redistricted from the 10th district
Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 13 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • John O'Neill (Democratic) 56.8%
  • George B. Wright (Republican) 43.2%
Ohio 14 Harrison G. O. Blake Republican 1859 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 15 Robert H. Nugen Democratic 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
James R. Morris
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic 1860 Re-elected
William P. Cutler
Redistricted from the 16th district
Republican 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Ohio 16 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 17 New district New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 18 Sidney Edgerton Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 19 Albert G. Riddle Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excluding states admitted after the start of Congress.
  2. ^ a b Including late elections.
  3. ^ a b c Includes 2 Independent Republicans, elected to PA-13 and PA-18.
  4. ^ New state.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nevins (1960), 6:318-22, quote on p. 322.
  2. ^ Voegeli (1963).
  3. ^ Tap (1993).
  4. ^ Dubin, p. 197.
  5. ^ 12 Stat. 633
  6. ^ 13 Stat. 32
  7. ^ Stat. 432
  8. ^ 12 Stat. 353
  9. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 150, 151.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]


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