1863 in science
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Friedrich Bayer founds the chemical manufacturing company of Bayer at Barmen in Germany.
- Teerfarbenfabrik Meister, Lucius & Co. of Höchst (Frankfurt) in Germany produce a green dye from coal tar.
- Max Schultze advances cell theory with the observation that animal and vegetable protoplasm are identical.
- Henry Walter Bates publishes The Naturalist on the River Amazons.
- February 17 – First meeting of what will become the International Committee of the Red Cross is held in Geneva, Switzerland, following the lead of humanitarian Henry Dunant.
- William Banting publishes Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public in London, the first popular low-carbohydrate diet.
- Ivan Sechenov publishes Refleksy golovnogo mozga ("Reflexes of the brain").
- February 10 – Alanson Crane patents a fire extinguisher.
- July – The tiny Confederate States of America hand-propelled submarine H. L. Hunley is first tested successfully (although thirteen crew – including her inventor Horace Lawson Hunley – are lost in two sinkings later in the year).
- December 19 – Linoleum patented in the United Kingdom.
- January 31 – The first of Jules Verne's scientifically inspired Voyages Extraordinaires, the novel Cinq semaines en ballon (Five Weeks in a Balloon), is published in Paris.
- March 25 – Simon Flexner (d. 1946), American pathologist and bacteriologist.
- April 29 - Signe Häggman (d. 1911), Finnish pioneer of physical education of the disabled.
- May 14 – John Charles Fields (d. 1932), Canadian mathematician.
- July 12 – Paul Drude (d. 1906), German physicist.
- October 16 – Beverly Thomas Galloway (d. 1938), American plant pathologist.
- Undated – Cuthbert Christy (d. 1932), English medical investigator, zoologist and explorer.
- March 7 – Charles Wilkins Short (b. 1794), American botanist.
- July 21 - Josephine Kablick (b. 1787), Czech botanist and paleontologist.
- Burke, James (1978). Connections. London: Macmillan. p. 205. ISBN 0-333-24827-9.
- Das Protoplasma der Rhizopoden und der Pflanzenzellen; ein Beiträg zur Theorie der Zelle.
- Boissier, Pierre (1985). History of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Volume I: From Solferino to Tsushima. Geneva: Henry Dunant Institute. ISBN 2-88044-012-2.
- Groves, Barry (2002). "William Banting: The Father of the Low-Carbohydrate Diet". Second Opinions. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
- Meditsinsky vestnik 47–48.
- Everett, Jason M., ed. (2006). "1863". The People's Chronology. Thomson Gale.
- In a public lecture, "On Radiation Through The Earth's Atmosphere", reprinted in his book Contributions to Molecular Physics in the Domain of Radiant Heat (1872).
- Chaffin, Tom (2008). The H. L. Hunley: the Secret Hope of the Confederacy. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-9512-4.