1864 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales – John Young, 1st Baron Lisgar
- Governor of Queensland – Sir George Bowen
- Governor of South Australia – Sir Dominick Daly
- Governor of Tasmania – Colonel Thomas Browne
- Governor of Victoria – Sir Charles Darling
- Premier of New South Wales – James Martin
- Premier of Queensland – Robert Herbert
- Premier of South Australia – Henry Ayers until 4 August, then Arthur Blyth
- Premier of Tasmania – James Whyte
- Premier of Victoria – James McCulloch
- 1 January – The Queensland Police Force is established and begins operations with approximately 143 employees.
- 4 May – The first trout hatchery in the southern hemisphere is established at Plenty, Tasmania.
- 14 May – Bushranger Frank Gardiner is sentenced to 32 years in prison, although he is later pardoned by Henry Parkes in 1874.
- 20 May – Bushranger Ben Hall and his gang escape from a shootout with police after attempting to rob the Bang Bang Hotel in Koorawatha, New South Wales.
- 2 June – The schooner Waratah disappears between Sydney and Newcastle, claiming seven lives.
- 1 October – The Australasian (later to be known as Australasian Post) is first published in Melbourne.
- 1 December - Great Fire of Brisbane
- 1 January – The All-England Eleven cricket team defeats the Victorian XXII at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.
- Lantern wins the Melbourne Cup.
- Carlton FC was founded
- 17 February – Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson, poet (died 1941)
- 18 April – Rose Summerfield, feminist and labour activist (died 1922)
- 15 January – Isaac Nathan, composer (b. 1790)
- 6 March – Peter Miller Cunningham, naval surgeon and author (b. 1789)
- 25 May – John Joseph Therry, Catholic priest (b. 1790)
- 19 June – Richard Heales, 4th Premier of Victoria (b. 1821)
- 24 November – Edward Buckley Wynyard, New South Wales politician (b. 1788)