1864 in music
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- February 24 – Bedřich Smetana's symphonic poem Hakon Jarl premieres in Prague
- February 29 – Composer Gioachino Rossini celebrates his 72nd (18th) birthday with a party.
- December 17 – Jacques Offenbach's operetta La Belle Hélène receives its first performance at the Paris Variétés
- Hans von Bülow takes over from Franz Lachner at the Munich opera.
- Anton Bruckner composes his Symphony No. 0 ("Die Nullte").
- Mili Balakirev begins his Symphony No. 1. It would not be performed till 1898.
Published popular music
- "Beautiful Dreamer" by Stephen Foster
- "Der Deitcher's Dog" ("O Where, O Where Has My Little Dog Gone?") by Septimus Winner
- "The Picture on the Wall" by Henry Clay Work
- "Pretty Polly Perkins of Paddington Green" w. Harry Clifton m. traditional?
- "Shall We Gather at the River?" w.m. Robert Lowry
- "Somebody's Darling" w.m. John Hill Hewitt
- "Tramp! Tramp! Tramp! (The Boys Are Marching)" by George F. Root
- Niels Gade - 3 Fantasi pieces for clarinet and piano, Op. 43
- Louis Gottschalk – The Dying Poet
- Friedrich Kiel – Piano Concerto
- Franz Strauss – Nocturno for Horn and Piano
- Thomas Tellefsen – Trio for piano, violin and cello (opus 31)
- Robert Volkmann – Symphony no. 2
- Peter Tchaikovsky - The Storm
- Flor van Duyse – Rosalinde (libretto by Karel Versnaeyen, premiered in Antwerp)
- Karel Miry – Bouchard-d'Avesnes (opera in 5 acts, libretto by Hippoliet van Peene, premiered on March 6 in Ghent)
- Jacques Offenbach – Die Rheinnixen (The Rhine Fairies)
- La Belle Hélène (Lyrics: Henri Meilhac & Ludovic Halévy Music: Jacques Offenbach) opens at the Théâtre des Variétés, Paris, on December 17.
- February 7 – Arthur Collins, singer (d. 1933)
- April 10 – Eugen d'Albert, composer, pianist (d. 1932)
- May 23 – Louis Glass, composer (d. 1936)
- June 11 – Richard Strauss, composer, conductor (d. 1949)
- July 6 – Alberto Nepomuceno, composer and conductor (d. 1920)
- August 18 – Gemma Bellincioni, operatic soprano (d. 1950)
- October 7 – Louis F. Gottschalk, composer (d. 1934)
- date unknown – Alice Esty, operatic soprano (d. 1935)
- January 13 – Stephen Foster, songwriter (b. 1826) (domestic accident)
- January 26 – Otto Lindblad, composer (b. 1809)
- February 16 – Václav Jindřich Veit, lawyer and composer (b. 1806)
- March 30 – Louis Schindelmeisser, clarinettist, conductor and composer (b. 1811)
- May 2 – Giacomo Meyerbeer, composer (b. 1791)
- October 1 – Christian Friedrich Ludwig Buschmann, musical instrument maker (b. 1805)
- October 7 – Apollon Grigoryev, poet and songwriter (b. 1822) (alcoholism)
- December 20 – Josef Proksch, pianist and composer (b. 1794)
- Melnitz, Leo ed., The Opera Goer's Complete Guide, 1921
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