18650 battery

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  • 18650 battery
  • 1865 cell
Panasonic 18650 batteries inside a laptop. Each cell has a capacity of 2450 mAh.
TypePower source
Working principleElectrochemical reactions, Electromotive force
First production 1994
Pin configuration Anode and Cathode
Electronic symbol
Battery symbol1

An 18650 battery[1] or 1865 cell[2] is a cylindrical lithium-ion battery common in electronic devices. The batteries measure 18 mm (0.71 in) in diameter by 65 mm (2.56 in) in length, giving them the name 18650.[3]

Panasonic first developed the 18650 battery in 1994 "when there was a growing need for ever smaller and lighter storage batteries that could be used for ever longer periods of time".[4] They are now commonly used in power tools, electric bicycles, laptops, and electric vehicles.[5]


18650 batteries are most commonly lithium-based, although sodium-ion variants are available for purchase.[6] Lithium-ion batteries consist of an anode, typically made of graphite and a cathode, often of lithium-metal oxide.


A generic BMS for 4 series lithium-ion cells ('4s BMS').

18650 batteries are more commonly used in packs, where a BMS (Battery Management System) is required, especially once cells age and perform differently. BMS boards balance the voltage of cells in series and protect against over- and under-discharge.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ August Neverman (12 November 2022). "Everything You Need to Know About the 18650 Battery". Common Sense Home.
  2. ^ Jake Christensen (2022-05-20). "Tesla Tab Talk". Bosch.
  3. ^ Zollo, Bob (19 September 2018). "The Standard 18650 Li-Ion Cell Isn't Always Standard". Electronic Design. 21807019. Retrieved 2023-07-04.
  4. ^ "Corporate History: 1994". Panasonic Holdings. Retrieved 2023-07-04.
  5. ^ Muenzel, Valentin; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hoog, Julian de; Brazil, Marcus; Thomas, Doreen A.; Mareels, Iven (2015-05-28). "A Comparative Testing Study of Commercial 18650-Format Lithium-Ion Battery Cells". Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 162 (8): A1592. doi:10.1149/2.0721508jes. ISSN 1945-7111. S2CID 93255496.
  6. ^ "Sodium Ion 1250 mAh 50A 18650 Rechargeable Battery". SRIKO Batteries | Online store for electronics | Online battery store. Retrieved 2023-10-16.