|Working principle||Electrochemical reactions, Electromotive force|
|Pin configuration||Anode and Cathode|
An 18650 battery or 1865 cell is a cylindrical lithium-ion battery common in electronic devices. The batteries measure 18 mm (0.71 in) in diameter by 65 mm (2.56 in) in length, giving them the name 18650.
Panasonic first developed the 18650 battery in 1994 "when there was a growing need for ever smaller and lighter storage batteries that could be used for ever longer periods of time". They are now commonly used in power tools, electric bicycles, laptops, and electric vehicles.
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18650 batteries are most commonly lithium-based, although sodium-ion variants are available for purchase. Lithium-ion batteries consist of an anode, typically made of graphite and a cathode, often of lithium-metal oxide.
18650 batteries are more commonly used in packs, where a BMS (Battery Management System) is required, especially once cells age and perform differently. BMS boards balance the voltage of cells in series and protect against over- and under-discharge.
- August Neverman (12 November 2022). "Everything You Need to Know About the 18650 Battery". Common Sense Home.
- Jake Christensen (2022-05-20). "Tesla Tab Talk". Bosch.
- Zollo, Bob (19 September 2018). "The Standard 18650 Li-Ion Cell Isn't Always Standard". Electronic Design. 21807019. Retrieved 2023-07-04.
- "Corporate History: 1994". Panasonic Holdings. Retrieved 2023-07-04.
- Muenzel, Valentin; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hoog, Julian de; Brazil, Marcus; Thomas, Doreen A.; Mareels, Iven (2015-05-28). "A Comparative Testing Study of Commercial 18650-Format Lithium-Ion Battery Cells". Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 162 (8): A1592. doi:10.1149/2.0721508jes. ISSN 1945-7111. S2CID 93255496.
- "Sodium Ion 1250 mAh 50A 18650 Rechargeable Battery". SRIKO Batteries | Online store for electronics | Online battery store. Retrieved 2023-10-16.