1865 in the United Kingdom
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Events from the year 1865 in the United Kingdom.
- Monarch – Victoria
- Prime Minister – Viscount Palmerston (Liberal) (until 18 October), Lord John Russell (Liberal) (starting 29 October)
- April – official opening of Crossness Pumping Station, a major landmark in completion of the new London sewerage system designed by Joseph Bazalgette for the Metropolitan Board of Works.
- 28 May – the Mimosa sets sail, carrying Welsh emigrants to Patagonia.
- June – Jumbo, a large African elephant, is transferred to London Zoo and becomes a popular attraction.
- 4 June – the lyrics of the hymn "Onward, Christian Soldiers", written by Sabine Baring-Gould as "Hymn for Procession with Cross and Banners", are first sung by children processing to St Peter's Church, Horbury, in the West Riding of Yorkshire.
- 9 June – Staplehurst rail crash in Kent: 10 killed, 49 injured; Charles Dickens is amongst the survivors.
- 25 June – James Hudson Taylor founds the China Inland Mission at Brighton.
- 29 June – new Poor Law Act improves conditions in workhouses.
- July – general election won by the Liberal Party led by Lord Palmerston.
- 2 July – the Christian Mission, later renamed The Salvation Army, is founded in Whitechapel, London by William and Catherine Booth.
- 4 July – Lewis Carroll publishes his children's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (first trade edition in December).
- 5 July – first speed limit is introduced in Britain by the Locomotive Act – 2 mph in town and 4 mph in the country.
- 14 July – a party led by Edward Whymper makes the first ascent of the Matterhorn.
- 23 July – the SS Great Eastern departs on a voyage to lay a transatlantic telegraph cable.
- September – John Henry Walsh (writing as 'Stonehenge' in the magazine The Field) gives the first definition of a dog breed standard (for the pointer) based on physical form.
- 28 September – Elizabeth Garrett Anderson graduates as Britain's first woman doctor.
- 9 to 20 October – Unsuccessful uprising against British rule in Morant Bay, Jamaica; 400 rebels executed.
- 29 October – Lord John Russell becomes Prime Minister following the death of Lord Palmerston on 18 October.
- 6 November – American Civil War: Surrender to HMS Donegal at Liverpool of the Confederate commerce raider CSS Shenandoah.
- 11 November – Duar War with Bhutan ends with the Treaty of Sinchula, in which Bhutan cedes control of southern passes to Britain in return for an annual subsidy.
- 26 November - Lewis Carroll, an author from Daresbury, Cheshire, publishes Alice in Wonderland, as per request from Alice Liddell
- 16 December – Edward John Eyre, governor of Jamaica, dismissed and censured for his excessive actions during the suppression of the recent rebellion.
- Francis Galton formulates eugenics.
- James Clerk Maxwell publishes A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field.
- Joseph Lister discovers the sterilising effects of carbolic acid.
- Major outbreak of rinderpest in British cattle.
- Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation founded in Hong Kong by Thomas Sutherland.
- Gladiateur wins the English Triple Crown by finishing first in the Epsom Derby, 2,000 Guineas and St Leger.
- Lewis Carroll's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
- Charles Dickens' novel Our Mutual Friend (publication concludes).
- Robert Smith Surtees' novel Mr. Facey Romford's Hounds (posthumous).
- A. C. Swinburne's narrative poem Atalanta in Calydon.
- Anthony Trollope's novel Can You Forgive Her? (publication concludes).
- 9 April – Adela Florence Nicolson ('Laurence Hope'), poet (suicide 1904)
- 2 June – George Lohmann, cricketer (died 1901)
- 3 June – Prince George of Wales, later George V (died 1936)
- 15 July – Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, newspaper and publishing magnate (died 1922)
- 12 October – Arthur Harden, chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1940)
- 20 October – Sir Rhys Rhys-Williams, 1st Baronet, judge (died 1955)
- 27 October – Tinsley Lindley, footballer (died 1940)
- 4 December – Edith Cavell, nurse (executed 1915)
- 30 December – Rudyard Kipling, writer, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1936)
- 6 February – Mrs Isabella Beeton, writer on household management and cookery (born 1836)
- 11 March – Robert Hermann Schomburgk, explorer (born 1804 in Freiburg)
- 2 April – John Cassell, publisher and entrepreneur (born 1817)
- 30 April – Robert FitzRoy, meteorologist and admiral (born 1805; suicide)
- 27 May – Charles Waterton, naturalist and explorer (born 1782)
- 8 June – Joseph Paxton, gardener and architect (born 1803)
- 25 July – Dr James Barry, military surgeon, revealed on death to be a woman, probably Margaret Ann Bulkley (born 1789-1799)
- 12 August – William Jackson Hooker, botanist (born 1785)
- 9 September – William Henry Smyth, astronomer and admiral (born 1788)
- 18 October – Viscount Palmerston, Prime Minister (born 1784)
- 1 November – John Lindley, botanist (born 1799)
- 8 November – Thomas Sayers, boxer (born 1826)
- 12 November – Mrs Elizabeth Gaskell, novelist and biographer (born 1810)
- Everett, Jason M., ed. (2006). "1865". The People's Chronology. Thomson Gale.
- Bradley, Ian (1989). The Book of Hymns. New York: Testament Books. p. 333.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. p. 286. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- "Time traveller's guide to Victorian Britain". Channel 4. Archived from the original on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2007.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "First modern dog discovered". University of Manchester. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Galton, Francis (1865). "Hereditary talent and character" (PDF). Macmillan's Magazine. 12: 157–166, 318–327. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2007.