1868 United States House of Representatives elections
All 243[Note 3] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
122 seats needed for a majority
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1868 elections for 41st Congress
Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1868 to elect Representatives to the 41st United States Congress. The election coincided with the presidential election of 1868, which was won by Ulysses S. Grant.
The Democrats gained 20 seats, but Grant's Republican Party retained a commanding majority in the Reconstruction era following the American Civil War, holding onto a firm legitimacy through an association with victory. As more Southern states exited Reconstruction, more Democratic seats appeared in the South. However, Democratic gains in the South were limited, as the Republican power-brokers of Reconstruction held a great deal of influence. The small Conservative Party of Virginia also picked up several seats in Virginia, as it had support among wealthy Southern leaders who wanted to increase the region's power.
Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia were readmitted during this Congress, leaving Congress without vacant State delegations for the first time since 1860. Georgia had been partially readmitted in the previous Congress, but was not initially admitted to the 41st Congress. With Georgia's final readmission in 1870, all former Confederate states were once more represented in Congress.
|Georgia[Note 6]||District||7[Note 7]||3||1||4||2||0|
+ 1 at-large
|New Hampshire[Note 4]||District||3||3||0||0|
|West Virginia[Note 5]||District||3||3||0||0|
In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors. This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to that date. 1868 was the first year in which the majority of States (20 of 37) held their elections on that date. There were still 9 states which held elections before that date and 4 that held regular elections after that date, in addition to 4 readmitted states that held elections after that date
- Early dates (1868):
- Late dates (regular elections):
- Readmitted states:
Late elections to the 40th Congress
|Florida at-large||None (Readmitted state)||Republican gain||Charles M. Hamilton (R) 58.1%|
John Friend (D) 32.6%
Liberty Billings (I) 9.4%
|California 1||Samuel Beach Axtell||Democratic||1866||Re-elected||Samuel Beach Axtell (D) 54.1%|
Frank M. Pixley (R) 45.9%
|California 2||William Higby||Republican||1863||Lost renomination
|Aaron A. Sargent (R) 54.7%|
James W. Coffroth (D) 45.3%
|California 3||James A. Johnson||Democratic||1866||Re-elected||James A. Johnson (D) 50.4%|
Chancellor Hartson (R) 49.6%
|Florida at-large||Charles M. Hamilton||Republican||1868[Note 8]||Re-elected||Charles M. Hamilton (R) 56.4%|
W. D. Barnes (D) 38.5%
William U. Saunders (I) 5.1%
|Massachusetts 10||Henry L. Dawes||Republican||1856||Incumbent re-elected.||√ Henry L. Dawes (Republican) 12,260 votes|
Chapin (Democratic) 7,490 votes
|Ohio 1||Benjamin Eggleston||Republican||1864||Lost Re-election
|Ohio 2||Samuel F. Cary||Ind-Republican||1867 (s)||Lost Re-election
|Ohio 3||Robert C. Schenck||Republican||1862||Re-elected|
|Ohio 4||William Lawrence||Republican||1864||Re-elected|
|Ohio 5||William Mungen||Democratic||1866||Re-elected|
|Ohio 6||Reader W. Clarke||Republican||1864||Retired
|Ohio 7||Samuel Shellabarger||Republican||1864||Retired
|Ohio 8||John Beatty||Republican||1868 (s)||Re-elected|
|Ohio 9||Ralph P. Buckland||Republican||1864||Retired
|Ohio 10||James M. Ashley||Republican||1862||Lost Re-election
|Ohio 11||John Thomas Wilson||Republican||1866||Re-elected|
|Ohio 12||Philadelph Van Trump||Democratic||1866||Re-elected|
|Ohio 13||Columbus Delano||Republican||1866[Note 9]||Retired
|Ohio 14||Martin Welker||Republican||1864||Re-elected|
|Ohio 15||Tobias A. Plants||Republican||1864||Retired
|Ohio 16||John Bingham||Republican||1864||Re-elected|
|Ohio 17||Ephraim R. Eckley||Republican||1862||Retired
|Ohio 18||Rufus P. Spalding||Republican||1862||Retired
|Ohio 19||James A. Garfield||Republican||1862||Re-elected|
- United States elections, 1868
- 40th United States Congress
- 41st United States Congress
- Excludes states readmitted after the start of Congress.
- The majority of States held elections on November 3, 1868 (i.e. "Election Day") for the first time.
- Including late elections.
- Elections held late.
- Elections held early.
- Readmitted state.
- Previous election had one vacancy.
- Late election to 40th Congress.
- Columbus Delano lost election in 1866 to George W. Morgan, contested the election, and was seated June 1868.
- Ben. Perley Poore (1869). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory for the First Session of the Forty-First Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
- Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
- Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
- "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)