1868 in Australia
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- Governor of New South Wales — Somerset Lowry-Corry, 4th Earl Belmore
- Governor of Queensland — Sir George Bowen, then Colonel Sir Samuel Blackall
- Governor of South Australia — Sir Dominick Daly until 19 February
- Governor of Tasmania — Colonel Thomas Browne, then Charles Du Cane
- Governor of Victoria — Sir John Manners-Sutton
- Premier of New South Wales — James Martin, until 27 October then John Robertson
- Premier of Queensland — Robert Mackenzie, until 25 November then Charles Lilley
- Premier of South Australia — Henry Ayers, until 24 September then John Hart (2nd time), until 13 October then Henry Ayers (4th time), until 3 November then Henry Strangways
- Premier of Tasmania — Richard Dry
- Premier of Victoria — James McCulloch, until 6 May then Charles Sladen, until 11 July then James McCulloch (2nd time)
- 10 January — The last convict ship to Western Australia, the Hougoumont, arrives in Western Australia. This brought the end of penal transportation to Australia.
- 5 March — The Queensland Parliament passes the Polynesian Labourers Act to regulate the employment of Pacific Islanders recruited through blackbirding.
- 12 March — Henry James O'Farrell fires a revolver into the back of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh (second son of Queen Victoria) while the latter is picnicking in the beachfront suburb of Clontarf. It was Australia's first attempted political assassination.O'Farrell first claimed that he was acting under instruction from Melbourne Fenians but retracted the claims. He had problems with alcoholism and mental illness.
- May — October — The first Australian cricket team to tour overseas plays against several English teams, winning 14 matches, losing 14 and drawing 19.
- 3 November — Glencoe wins the Melbourne Cup
- 14 November — Arthur Hoey Davis, better known as author Steele Rudd (died 1935)
- 21 April — Henry James O'Farrell, attempted assassin of Prince Alfred 
- 10 June — Charles Harpur, poet (born 1813)
- 21 July – William Bland, Medical practitioner, surgeon and politician (b. 1789)
- Random House Australia Australia through Time 2009 North Sydney NSW
- Sydney Morning Herald 16 March 1868 page 2
- http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A050409b.htm Australian Dictionary of Biography "O'Farrell, Henry James"
- Australia through Time Op. Cit
- http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A050409b.htm Australian Dictionary of Biography Henry James O'Farrell