1878 in Ireland
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|See also:||1878 in the United Kingdom
Other events of 1878
List of years in Ireland
Events from the year 1878 in Ireland.
- 22 May – launch of the experimental powered submarine Holland I, designed by Irish-born John Philip Holland, at Paterson, New Jersey. Its performance impresses the American Fenian Brotherhood sufficiently to induce them to finance his continued experiments with a view to using such a machine against the British.
- 24 August – the narrow gauge Ballymena and Larne Railway starts passenger operations in County Antrim, the first on the Irish 3 ft narrow gauge.
- 9 October – St Mary's Cathedral, Tuam (Church of Ireland) dedicated.
- 28 September – Intermediate Education Act passed: this will revolutionise Irish society, as it provides education to talented and hard-working boys and girls through "Exhibitions" (scholarships) worth up to $50. It particularly changes the position of women: by 1901 there will be 20,478 teachers in Ireland, 60% of them women, earning 80% of the male wage for the job.
- Mount St. Joseph Abbey, Roscrea established by Cistercian Trappist monks from Mount Melleray Abbey.
Arts and literature
- Irish Cycling Association (ICA) was established to administer the cycling as the sport became popular throughout Ireland. 
- 8 January – Frederic Charles Dreyer, Royal Navy Admiral (died 1956).
- 1 February – Thomás MacDonagh, nationalist, poet, rebel and Easter Rising leader (died 1916).
- 14 February – Daniel Corkery, writer, teacher and Fianna Fáil Senator (died 1964).
- 23 February – Pádraic Ó Máille, Sinn Féin MP and TD, Fianna Fáil Senator (died 1946).
- 13 March – Patrick McCartan, Sinn Féin MP and TD, member of 1st Dáil, a founder member of Clann na Poblachta (died 1966).
- 19 March – Michael James O'Rourke, soldier, recipient of the Victoria Cross for gallantry in 1917 at Hill 70 near Lens, France (died 1957).
- 11 April – Kathleen Clarke, widow of Tom Clarke, Sinn Féin and later Fianna Fáil TD, Seanad member, first female Lord Mayor of Dublin (died 1972).
- 17 April – Thomas Harvey, cricketer and rugby player (died 1966).
- 3 June – Sinéad de Valera, writer and wife of third President of Ireland, Éamon de Valera (died 1975).
- 24 July – Edward Plunkett, 18th Baron Dunsany, writer and dramatist (died 1957).
- 9 August – Eileen Gray, architect and designer (died 1976).
- 15 August – Harry Corley, cricketer and rugby union international (died 1936).
- 17 August – Oliver St. John Gogarty, physician, poet and writer (died 1957).
- 27 November – William Orpen, painter (died 1931).
- 23 December – Francis Sheehy-Skeffington, suffragist, pacifist and writer, who would be murdered by British Army (died 1916).
- Full date unknown
- Helena Concannon, Fianna Fáil politician and historian (died 1952).
- Jamesy Kelleher, Cork hurler (died 1943).
- Margaret Mary Pearse, Fianna Fáil TD and Seanad Éireann member, sister of Patrick Pearse (died 1968).
- Geoffrey Taylour, 4th Marquess of Headfort, peer (died 1943).
- Dick Walsh, Kilkenny hurler (died 1958).
- 2 April – William Clements, 3rd Earl of Leitrim, nobleman and landowner (born 1806).
- 22 September – Sir Richard John Griffith, 1st Baronet, geologist (born 1784).
- 24 October – Paul Cullen, Cardinal and Catholic Primate of Ireland (born 1803).
- 21 November – John Deyell, founder of Millbrook, Ontario (b. c1775)
- 22 December – Patrick Mylott, soldier, recipient of the Victoria Cross for gallantry in 1857 in India (born 1820).
- Baker, Michael H.C. (1999). Irish Narrow Gauge Railways: a View from the Past. Shepperton: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0-7110-2680-7.
- Patterson, Edward M. (1968). The Ballymena Lines. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. p. 64. ISBN 0-7153-4183-9.
- "Saint Mary's Cathedral – Tuam". 2007. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Irish Intermediate Education Act".
- "Sport and Community Relations in Northern Ireland".