1880 in Australia
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- 20 January - Bushranger Captain Moonlight (real name Andrew George Scott) hanged in Sydney.
- 31 January - The Bulletin magazine is first published
- 16 April - School is made compulsory for children aged 6 to 14 in New South Wales.
- 28 June Ned Kelly captured at Glenrowan, Victoria.
- 1 October - The Melbourne International Exhibition is opened at the Royal Exhibition Building in Carlton.
- 10 October - Geologist Lamont Young and four others disappear on a boat trip north from Bermagui, New South Wales.
- 11 November - Bushranger Ned Kelly is hanged.
- 23 November - Redmond Barry, the judge who sentenced Ned Kelly to be hanged, dies just twelve days after Kelly was hanged.
- Parliamentarians in Victoria become the first in Australia to be paid for their work.
Science and technology
- 2 February - The first successful shipment of frozen mutton from Australia arrived in London aboard the SS Strathleven.
Arts and literature
Main article: 1880 in Australian literature
- Grand Flaneur wins the Melbourne Cup
- England defeat Australia by 5 wickets in a Cricket Test held at The Oval
- 15 April - Doug McLean, Sr., rugby footballer (died 1947)
- 11 December - Frank Tarrant, cricketer (died 1951)
- 20 December - Earle Page, the eleventh Prime Minister of Australia (died 1961)
- 20 January - Captain Moonlight, bushranger (born 1842), hanged
- 2 May - Tom Wills, cricketer and founder of Australian rules football (born 1835), suicide
- 29 July – Charles Hervey Bagot, South Australian pastoralist, mine owner and parliamentarian (b. 1788)
- 27 September – Charles Hardwicke, Tasmanian explorer (b. 1788)
- 27 October - Samuel Gill, artist (born 1818)
- 11 November - Ned Kelly, bushranger (b. c. 1855), hanged
- 23 November - Redmond Barry, Judge (born 1813)