1883 in literature
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This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1883.
- January 13 – World première of Henrik Ibsen's play An Enemy of the People (En folkefiende; 1882) at the Christiania Theatre.
- February – Carlo Collodi's children's story The Adventures of Pinocchio is first published complete in book form as Le avventure di Pinocchio in Italy.
- May 23 – Robert Louis Stevenson's children's pirate adventure novel Treasure Island is first published in book form, by Cassell in London.
- June – First performance by Footlights, the Cambridge University dramatic club.
- June 30–October 20 – Robert Louis Stevenson's novel The Black Arrow: A Tale of Tunstall Forest is serialized in the British magazine Young Folks as by "Captain George North". Stevenson completes writing it at the end of the summer in France.
- August 29 – Dunfermline Carnegie Library, the first Carnegie library, is opened in Andrew Carnegie's hometown, Dunfermline, Scotland.
- December 27–28 – The Modern Language Association of America holds its first meeting.
- Mark Twain's memoirs Life on the Mississippi, published simultaneously in Boston (Massachusetts) and London, is the first substantial book submitted to a publisher as a typewritten manuscript.
- Kisari Mohan Ganguli begins publication of the first English-language translation of the Mahabharata.
- The Deutsches Theater company is formed in Berlin.
- Mary Elizabeth Braddon – Phantom Fortune
- Rhoda Broughton – Belinda
- Hugh Conway – Called Back
- Wilkie Collins – Heart and Science
- Ludwig Ganghofer - The Hunter of Fall
- Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam – Contes cruels
- John Hay – The Bread-Winners (anonymous serialization in The Century Magazine)
- Alexander Kielland – Gift (Poison)
- Jonas Lie – Familien paa Gilje (The Gilje family)
- John Macnie as "Ismar Thiusen" – The Diothas; or, A Far Look Ahead
- Mary E. Mann – The Parish of Hilby
- Guy de Maupassant – Une Vie
- George A. Moore – A Modern Lover
- Friedrich Nietzsche – Thus Spoke Zarathustra (publication begins)
- Sir Thomas Wemyss Reid – Gladys Fane
- Annie Shepherd Swan – Aldersyde
- Giovanni Verga – Novelle rusticane (Rustic novellas, Little novels of Sicily)
- Jules Verne – Kéraban the Inflexible
Children and young people
- Carlo Collodi – The Adventures of Pinocchio (Le avventure di Pinocchio)
- George MacDonald – The Princess and Curdie
- Howard Pyle – The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
- Robert Louis Stevenson – Treasure Island (book publication)
- Frances Hodgson Burnett and William Gillette – Esmeralda
- François Coppée – Severo Torelli
- Imre Madách – The Tragedy of Man (Az ember tragédiája, first performed)
- George Robert Sims – In the Ranks
- August Strindberg – Lycko-Pers resa (Lucky Peter's Travels or Lucky Pehr)
- Oscar Wilde – Vera; or, The Nihilists (first performed)
- William Young – The Rajah; or Wyncot's Ward
Main article: 1883 in poetry
- Hall Caine – Cobwebs of Criticism
- Thomas Hill Green (died 1882) – Prolegomena to Ethics
- Agnes Catherine Maitland (as A. C. M., Examiner...) – The Rudiments of Cookery, with some account of food and its uses. A manual
- William Robinson – The English Flower Garden
- J. R. Seeley – The Expansion of England
- Alfred Percy Sinnett – Esoteric Buddhism
- John Addington Symonds – A Problem in Greek Ethics: an inquiry into the phenomenon of sexual inversion, addressed especially to medical psychologists and jurists
- Mark Twain – Life on the Mississippi
- January 1 – Alberto Gerchunoff, Argentine writer (died 1949)
- January 6 – Kahlil Gibran, Lebanese-born poet and novelist writing in Arabic and English (died 1931)
- January 10 – Aleksei Tolstoy, Russian writer (died 1945)
- January 20 – Forrest Wilson, American journalist and author (died 1942)
- February 15 – Sax Rohmer (Arthur Henry Ward), English novelist (died 1959)
- March 9 – Umberto Saba, Italian poet and novelist (died 1957)
- March 17 – Urmuz, Romanian short prose writer (died 1923)
- April 30 – Jaroslav Hašek, Czech novelist (died 1923)
- June 3 – Franz Kafka, Czech novelist writing in German (died 1924)
- June 4 – Joseph Jefferson Farjeon, English crime writer (died 1955)
- December 13 – Belle da Costa Greene, American librarian (died 1950)
- December 30 – Marie Gevers, Belgian novelist writing in French (died 1975)
- January 21 – Anna Eliza Bray, English novelist (born 1790)
- March 14 – Karl Marx, German philosopher (born 1818)
- April 24 – Jules Sandeau, French novelist (born 1811)
- May 15 – Mary Elizabeth Mohl ("Clarkey"), English-born literary salonnière (born 1793)
- May 23 – Cyprian Norwid, Polish poet, dramatist and artist (born 1821)
- June 20 – Gustave Aimard, French novelist (born 1818)
- July 16 – Edward Backhouse Eastwick, Anglo-Indian orientalist and translator (born 1814)
- August 31 – Levin Schücking, German novelist (born 1814)
- September 2 – Léon Halévy, French historian and dramatist (born 1802)
- September 3 – Ivan Turgenev, Russian novelist (born 1818)
- December 13 – Victor de Laprade, French poet and critic (born 1812)