From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The year 1885 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
- Hermann Ebbinghaus publishes Über das Gedächtnis ("On Memory", later translated as Memory: a Contribution to Experimental Psychology).
- April 3 – Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his single-cylinder water-cooled engine design.
- August 29 – Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for the Daimler Reitwagen, regarded as the first motorcycle, which he has produced with Wilhelm Maybach.
- September 30 – Tolbert Lanston makes his first application for a United States patent on a typesetting system which includes the basic Monotype System keyboard.
- Autumn – Karl Benz produces the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first automobile (patented and publicly launched the following January).
- John Kemp Starley demonstrates the Rover safety bicycle, regarded as the first practical modern bicycle.
- The first, not yet practical, form of gyrocompass is patented by Marinus Gerardus van den Bos.
- Rufus Eastman patents the first known electric food mixer.
- Completion of the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, designed by William Le Baron Jenney. With ten floors and a fireproof weight-bearing metal frame, it is regarded as the first skyscraper.
- Completion of Sway Tower in Hampshire, England, designed by Andrew Peterson using concrete made with Portland cement. It remains the world's tallest non-reinforced concrete structure.
- January 24 – Marjory Stephenson (died 1948), English biochemist
- January 26 – Harry Ricardo (died 1974), English mechanical engineer
- June 2 – Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt (died 1964), German neuropathologist
- August 1 – George de Hevesy (died 1966), Hungarian Nobel laureate in chemistry
- October 7 – Niels Bohr (died 1962), Danish physicist
- October 23 – Jan Czochralski (died 1953), Polish discoverer of the Czochralski process for growing crystals
- October 26 – Niels Erik Nørlund (died 1981), Danish mathematician
- November 7 – Sabina Spielrein (k. 1942), Russian psychoanalyst
- November 9 – Hermann Weyl (died 1955), German mathematician
- December 2 – George Minot (died 1950), American Nobel laureate in physiology
- ^ Feng, P.; Weagant, S.; Grant, M. (2002-09-01). "Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria". Bacteriological Analytical Manual (8th ed.). FDA/Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- ^ "History of Chemistry". Intensive General Chemistry. Columbia University Department of Chemistry Undergraduate Program. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- ^ 1885–1908, 3 vols in 4. OCLC 2903551.
- ^ Gilles de la Tourette (1885). "Etude sur une affection nerveuse charactérisée par de l'incoordination motrice accompagnée d'écholalie et de coprolalie (jumping, latah, myriachit)". Archives de neurologie (Paris) 9: 19–42. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- ^ Magie, William Francis (1969). A Source Book in Physics. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. p. 360.
- ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (2000). "Johann Jakob Balmer". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
- ^ Gardiner, Mark (1997). Classic motorcycles. MetroBooks. p. 16. ISBN 1-56799-460-1.
- ^ Brown, Roland (2005). The Ultimate History of Fast Motorcycles. Bath: Parragon. p. 6. ISBN 1-4054-5466-0.
- ^ Wilson, Hugo (1993). The Ultimate Motorcycle Book. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 8–9. ISBN 1-56458-303-1.
- ^ Benz, Carl Friedrich (1925). Lebensfahrt eines deutschen erfinders; erinnerungen eines achtzigjahrigen. Leipzig: Koehler & Amelang.
- ^ "Icons of Invention: Rover safety bicycle, 1885". Making the Modern World. Science Museum (London). Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
- ^ Galison, Peter (1987). How Experiments End. University of Chicago Press. pp. 34–37. ISBN 978-0-226-27915-2. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
- ^ U.S. Patent 330,829.
- ^ Katz, Solomon H.; Weaver, William Woys, ed. (2003). Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. 2, Food production to Nuts. New York: Scribner. pp. 323–333. ISBN 0684805669.
- ^ "Vegetarian Times". October 2002. pp. 69–70.
- ^ "Home Insurance Building". SkyscraperPage. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
- ^ James, J. (1997). All about Sway Tower. Lymington: Lymington Museum Trust.
- ^ Trout, Edwin (October 2002). "Sway Tower: an early example of high-rise concrete construction". Concrete: 64–5.