Exposition Universelle (1889)
|Name||Exposition universelle de 1889|
|Organized by||Charles Adolphe Alphand|
|Venue||Champ de Mars Trocadéro|
|Opening||5 May 1889|
|Closure||31 October 1889|
|Previous||Exposición Universal de Barcelona in Barcelona|
|Next||World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago|
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 (French: [ɛkspozisjɔ̃ ynivɛʁsɛl]) was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 6 May to 31 October 1889, It was the fourth of eight expositions held in the city between 1855 and 1937. It attracted more than thirty-two million visitors. The most famous structure created for the Exposition, and still remaining, is the Eiffel Tower.
The Exposition was held to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Storming of the Bastille, which marked the beginning of French Revolution. The fair included a replica of the Bastille with the interior courtyard covered with a blue ceiling decorated with fleur-de-lys and used as a ballroom and gathering place. The theme of the Exposition, celebrating the overthrow and death of the French King and Queen, offended European states with monarchies; the governments of Germany, Russia, Spain, Austria and Britain did not officially participate, though their industries and artists did. The Exposition had 61,722 official exhibitors, of whom twenty-five thousand were from outside of France. 
Admission to the Exposition cost forty centimes, at a time when the price of a "economy" plate of meat and vegetables in a Paris cafe was ten centimes. Visitors paid an additional price for several of the Exposition's most popular attractions. Climbing the Eiffel Tower cost five Francs; admission to the popular panoramas, theatres and concerts was one franc. Visitors from the French provinces could buy a ticket which included the train fare and entry into the Exposition.  The total cost of Exposition was 41,500,000 Francs, while income was 49,500,000 Francs. It was the last of the Paris Universal Expositions to make a profit. 
The Exposition Site
The chief organizer of the Exposition was Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand, head of the Paris Department of Public Promenades and Plantations. Alphand served under Georges-Eugène Haussmann, the chief urban designer of Emperor Louis Napoleon. He had designed the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes, Parc Monceau, and the landscaping of the Champs-Élysées, among many other projects.
The Exposition occupied an enlarged version of the site originally used occupied by the 1878 Universal Exposition, on both sides of the Seine. It included the Champ-de-Mars. where, at one end, the enormous Gallery of Machines were located across from the Ecole Militaire, A separate additional site the left bank of the Seine, at the esplanade of Les Invalides, hosted the pavilions of the French colonies.
On the right bank, the Trocadero Palace, built for the Universal Exposition of 1878, along with the terraces and gardens between the Palace and the Seine.
Transport around the Exposition was partly provided by the 3 kilometre (1.9 mi) 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) gauge Decauville railway at Exposition Universelle. It was claimed that the railway carried 6,342,446 visitors in just six months of operation. Some of the locomotives used on this line later saw service on the Chemins de Fer du Calvados and the Diégo Suarez Decauville railway.
The exhibition was "used as showcases for scientific and technological advances, but also often included exhibits of objects from the past, including prehistoric times." (Muller-Scheessel). A close collaborator of the baron Haussmann, Jean-Charles Alphand, head of the Paris Department of Public Promenades and Plantations, was the organizer of the fair.
Views of the Exposition
Pavilions on the Esplanade des Invalides, with Les Invalides in the background
The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower, which served as the entrance arch to the Fair. The 1889 fair was held on the Champ de Mars in Paris, which had been the site of the earlier Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867, and would also be the site of the 1900 exposition. Since the lifts had not been completed when the Exposition opened, the first visitors had to walk up to the second floor platform. Workers had worked through the night the day before the exhibition opened to complete the necessary construction needed to safely allow patrons to set foot upon the structure. When speaking of the dedicated workers, M. Salles, the son-in-law of Eiffel made the statement that "no soldier on the battle field deserved better mention than these humble toilers, who, will never go down in history." No one other than construction personnel were allowed higher than the second floor platform.
An equally significant building constructed for the fair was the Galerie des machines, designed by architect Ferdinand Dutert and engineer Victor Contamin. It was reused at the exposition of 1900 and then destroyed in 1910. At 111 meters, the Galerie (or "Machinery Hall") spanned the longest interior space in the world at the time, using a system of hinged arches (like a series of bridge spans placed not end-to-end but parallel) made of steel or iron. Although often described as being constructed of steel, it was actually made of iron.
There is an extensive description, with illustrations, of the Exposition's two famous buildings in the British journal Engineering (3 May 1889 issue). A follow-up report appears a late issue with this summation:
the exhibition will be famous for four distinctive features. In the first place, for its buildings, especially the Eiffel tower and the Machinery Hall; in the second place, for its Colonial Exhibition, which for the first time brings vividly to the appreciation of the Frenchmen that they are masters of lands beyond the sea; thirdly, it will be remembered for its great collection of war material, the most absorbing subject now-a-days, unfortunately, to governments if not to individuals; and fourthly, it will be remembered, and with good cause by many, for the extraordinary manner in which South American countries are represented.
The 28 June issue of Engineering also mentions a remarkable "Great Model of the Earth" created by Theodore Villard and Charles Cotard. There were unseasonal thunderstorms in Paris during that summer of 1889, causing some distress to the canopies and decoration of the exposition, as reported by the Engineering issues at that time.
The Exhibition included a building by the Paris architect Pierre-Henri Picq. This was an elaborate iron and glass structure decorated with ceramic tiles in a Byzantine-Egyptian-Romanesque style. After the Exposition the building was shipped to Fort de France and reassembled there, the work being completed by 1893. Known as the Schoelcher Library, initially it contained the 10,000 books that Victor Schoelcher had donated to the island. Today, it houses over 250,000 books and an ethnographic museum, and stands as a tribute to the man it is named after who led the movement to abolish slavery in Martinique.
Matching closely the opening day of the Exposition, the Opéra Comique premiered on 14 May 1889 with a work specially composed for that event: Jules Massenet's Esclarmonde (debuting American soprano Sybil Sanderson), attracting and entertaining crowds of visitors for the more than 50 evenings the Exposition lasted.
William Stroudley, locomotive superintendent of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway died (of illness) whilst at the exhibition, where he was exhibiting one of his locomotives. Heineken received the Grand Prix (English: Grand Prize) at the exposition.
Buffalo Bill recruited American sharpshooter Annie Oakley to rejoin his "Wild West Show" which performed for packed audiences throughout the Exposition. Other prominent visitors included the Shah of Persia Nasereddin Shah, Prince of Wales (the future Edward VII) and his wife, Princess Alexandra; artists James McNeill Whistler, Edvard Munch, Rosa Bonheur, Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh; U.S. journalist and diplomat Whitelaw Reid; author Henry James; Filipino patriot Jose Rizal; and inventors Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison.
- Expenses: 41,500,000 Francs
- Receipts: 49,500,000 Francs
- Visitors: 32,250,297
- Exhibitors: over 61,722, of whom 55% were French
- represented countries: 35
Central Dome of the Gallerie des Machines by Louis Béroud
The Argentine Pavilion, winner of the contest.
- Ageorges, Sylvain (2006), Sur les traces des Expositions Universelles (in French), Parigramme. ISBN 978-28409-6444-5
- Eiffel's Tower by Jill Jonnes (Viking 2009)
- Engineering [Journal] 3 May 1889 (vol XLVII), London: Office for Advertisements and Publication, 1866- (ISSN 0013-7782)
- Structural iron and steel, 1850-1900, edited by Robert Thorne; Aldershot, Hampshire, Great Britain; Burlington, Vt., USA: Ashgate/Variorum, c2000 (ISBN 0860787591)
- L'Exposition de 1889 et la tour Eiffel, d'après les documents officiels. 1889. pp. 165-166
- Ageorges (2006), p. 78.
- "UN P'TIT CALVA". Andy Hart/SNCF Society. Archived from the original on 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- Suzanne Reutt: Histoire: A toute vapeur dans la campagne : les locos de Diego Suarez (2). 25 July 2012.
- Müller-Scheessel, Nils (2001). "Fair Prehistory: Archaeological exhibits at French Expositions Universelles". Antiquity. 75 (288): 391–401. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00061044.
- "The Great French Show". The New York Times. 1889-05-19. pp. Front Page. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
- Stamper, John W. (2000). Studies in the History of Civil Engineering. 10.
The principal material of the building’s structure was to have been steel, but the decision was made at the last minute to use iron instead. There is considerable confusion about this on the part of architectural historians, most of whom assume it was built of steel since that is what is mentioned by contemporary journalists before the opening of the fair. William Watson, an American engineer who wrote a thorough report on the fair after it closed states that the idea of using steel was abandoned "on the two-fold ground of expense and the necessity of hastening the execution of work. " The price of iron was about two-thirds that of steel in 1889.Missing or empty
- "The Paris Exhibition". Engineering: 677. 14 June 1889.
- Nicolas Bancel, Pascal Blanchard and Sandrine Lemaire Ces zoos humains de la République coloniale. Le Monde Diplomatique, August 2000: Pages 16, 17. Adapted from the book: Nicolas Bancel, Pascal Blanchard, Gilles Boëtsch, Eric Deroo et Sandrine Lemaire, Zoos humains. Au temps des exhibitions humaines, Paris, La Découverte-Poche, 2004.
- Revol, Patrick (2000). Influences de la musique indonésienne sure la musique française du XXème siècle. Paris, France: L'Harmattan. p. 537. ISBN 2-7384-9582-6.
- "No small beer: brewing success at Expo 1889 Paris". Bureau International des Expositions. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 18 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "THE NIZAM'S STOLEN GEM.; Story of the Imperial Diamond, Found in South Africa, and Bought by an Indian Prince" (PDF). The New York Times. 30 May 1897.
- Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo, Mexico at the World's Fairs: Crafting a Modern Nation. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1996, p. 64.
- Uhland, Wilhelm Heinrich (1879). Corliss-engines and Allied Steam-motors Working with and Without Automatic Variable Expansion-gear. E. & F. N. Spon.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Exposition Universelle (1889).|
- Young, P. (2008). From the Eiffel Tower to the Javanese Dancer: Envisioning Cultural Globalization at the 1889 Paris Exhibition. The History Teacher, 41(3), 339-362. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30036916
- World's Fair of 1889, Paris. The BIE's page about the Exposition
- Views of the Paris Exposition, 1889. 290 photos at the Library of Congress
- L'Universelle exposition de 1889 illustrée... in Gallica, the digital library of the BnF
- Exposition Universelle de 1889 from the Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library