1891 in science
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- The New Zealand government sets aside Resolution Island in Fiordland as a nature reserve.
- The New York Botanical Garden is founded in The Bronx largely due to the efforts of Nathaniel Lord Britton.
- Jane Willis Kirkaldy and Catherine Pollard become the first women to sit final examinations in biology at the University of Oxford (and achieve first class honours).
- Fyodorov–Schoenflies theorem concluded by Yevgraf Fyodorov and Arthur Schoenflies from their work on crystallographic groups.
- Julius Ludwig August Koch begins publication of Die psychopathischen Minderwertigkeiten in Ravensburg, introducing the concept of psychopathology.
- Arnold Pick first uses the term dementia praecox in this form.
- The earliest recorded attempt at hip replacement is carried out by Themistocles Gluck in Berlin, using ivory to replace the femoral head.
- October – Eugène Dubois finds the first fragmentary bones of Pithecanthropus erectus (later redesignated Homo erectus), or 'Java Man', at Trinil on the Solo River.
- March 10 – Almon B. Strowger, an undertaker in Topeka, Kansas, is granted a patent in the United States for an automatic telephone exchange using the Strowger switch.
- March 15 – Jesse W. Reno patents the first escalator at Coney Beach in the United States.
- May 20 – First public demonstration of the Kinetograph moving picture system developed by W. K. L. Dickson under the direction of Thomas Alva Edison, a showing of the film known as Dickson Greeting. Edison files patents on the camera and peephole viewer on August 24.
- Michelin patent the removable pneumatic bicycle tire.
- Panhard et Levassor produce the first Système Panhard automobile layout, consisting of four wheels with front-engine, rear-wheel drive and a sliding-gear transmission, designed by Émile Levassor.
- William Le Baron Jenney develops the construction of steel frame skyscrapers in Chicago with the Ludington, Manhattan and Second Leiter Buildings.
- July 5 – John Howard Northrop (suicide 1987), American biochemist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1946)
- September 14 – Ivan Matveyevich Vinogradov (died 1983), Russian mathematician.
- September 24 – W. F. Friedman (died 1969), Bessarabian-born cryptanalyst.
- October 24 – Ernest Melville DuPorte (died 1981), Caribbean-born Canadian insect morphologist.
- November 14 – Frederick Banting (died 1941), Canadian discoverer of insulin, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1923)
- February 10 – Sofia Kovalevskaya (born 1850), mathematician.
- May 11 – Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (born 1820), physicist.
- June 9 – Henry Edwards (born 1827), entomologist and actor.
- June 23
- November 18 – Joseph Wolstenholme (born 1829), mathematician.
- December 21 – William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire (born 1808), landowner and promoter of science.
- Hill, Susanne; John (1987). Richard Henry of Resolution Island. Dunedin: John McIndoe. ISBN 0-86868-094-X.
- "The female firsts". Oxford Today. 22 (1). 29 September 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
- Pockels, Agnes (1891). "Surface tension". Nature. 43: 437–439. doi:10.1038/043437c0.
- Giles, C. H.; Forrester, S. D. (9 January 1971). "The origins of the surface film balance: Studies in the early history of surface chemistry, part 3". Chemistry & Industry: 43–53.
- "Annual Anomalies of Global Average Surface Temperature (1891 - 2013)". JMA. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Senechal, Marjorie (1990). "A brief history of geometrical crystallography". In Lima-de-Faria, J. Historical Atlas of Crystallography. Kluwer. pp. 43–59. ISBN 0-7923-0649-X.
- Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas you really need to know. London: Quercus. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8.
- Ronson, Jon (2011-05-21). "How to spot a psychopath". Guardian Weekend: 31.
- "Ueber primäre chronische Demenz (so. Dementia praecox) im jugendlichen Alter". Prager medicinische Wochenschrift. 16: 312–15. 1891.
- Gomez, Pablo F.; Morcuende, Jose A. (2005). "Early attempts at hip arthroplasty, 1700s to 1950s". Iowa Orthopaedic Journal. 25: 25–9. PMC . PMID 16089067.
- Carroll, Sean B. (2009). Remarkable Creatures: Epic Adventures in the Search for the Origin of Species. London: Quercus. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-1-84916-072-8.
- US 447918
- Hill, Roger B. (March 1953). "The Early Years of the Strowger System". Bell Laboratories Record. 31 (3): 95–103. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
- Mannoni, Laurent; Campagnoni, Donata Pesenti; Robinson, David (1996). Light and Movement: Incunabula of the Motion Picture, 1420–1896. London: BFI. ISBN 88-86155-05-0.
- Lloyd, John; Mitchinson, John (2010). The Second Book of General Ignorance. London: Faber. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-571-26965-5.
- Georgano, G. N., ed. (1982). Complete Encyclopedia of Motorcars. London: Ebury Press. ISBN 0-85223-234-9.